Wirt Sikes

William Wirt Sikes (November 23, 1836 – August 18, 1883) was an American journalist and writer, perhaps best known today for his writings on Welsh folklore and customs.

William Wirt Sikes was born in Watertown, New York, the son of William Johnson Sikes, a prominent local physician. He was the seventh of eleven children, of whom only six survived to adulthood. Sikes himself was seriously ill as a child and almost lost his hearing, so he was largely educated at home. At fourteen he went to work for a printer and learned how to set type. He supported himself thereafter by typesetting, contributing to local newspapers, and giving temperance lectures.

At the age of nineteen, on August 28, 1855, he married Jeannette Annie Wilcox (1837-1889); they had two children, George Preston Sikes (1856-1957) and Clara Jeanette Sikes (1858-1956).

In 1856 he was working at the Utica Morning Herald as a typesetter and contributor. He published a book of stories and poems, A Book for the Winter-Evening Fireside, in 1858. He spent time in Chicago working at newspapers there, and around 1860 worked on a paper called City and Country in Nyack, New York. In 1862 he was given the job of canal inspector in Chicago for the state-owned Illinois and Michigan Canal. While in Chicago he was separated from his wife, by mutual consent; they divorced in 1870.

Between 1865 and 1867 he went to New York City to work on newspapers there; he took a special interest in the lives of the poor there. He continued to write, publishing stories in The Youth’s Companion, Oliver Optic’s Magazine, and others. He published two novels, The World’s Broad Stage (serialized in the Toledo Blade) and One Poor Girl (1869). Sikes gave lectures and was represented by the Boston Lyceum Bureau from 1869–71; he married fellow lecturer Olive Logan on December 19, 1871.

After their marriage the couple went to Europe, where they continued to practice journalism. Sikes produced a biographical and critical piece on the Wiertz Museum for Harper’s Magazine in 1873 which was later reprinted by the museum.

In June 1876 Sikes was appointed U.S. Consul at Cardiff, Wales. Over the next few years Sikes produced a number of pieces on Welsh folklore, mythology, and customs, collected as British Goblins; Welsh Folk-Lore, Fairy Mythology, Legends, and Traditions (1880) and Rambles and Studies in Old South Wales (1881). He also wrote Studies of Assassination (1881). He died in Cardiff in 1883 and was buried in Brookwood Cemetery, Brookwood, Surrey.

Sikes is said to have used as many as thirty pseudonyms for his prolific output, as well as material published under his own name. As „Burton Saxe“ he wrote the dime novel The Black Hunter; or, The Cave Secret (American Tales #22, 1865).

In George Presbury Rowell’s memoir Forty Years an Advertising Agent, he recalls a column in the New York Tribune, „wherein certain literary characters were reviewed in grades and classes, beginning with – I don’t remember whom, Thackeray perhaps, and descending, as the editor expressed it, ‚down to Wirt Sikes'“.

Hospital of St Lawrence, Bodmin

The Hospital of St Lawrence, Bodmin is a former mental hospital in Bodmin, Cornwall, England, UK, part of which has been converted to residential accommodation and the remainder of which has been demolished.

St Lawrence’s Hospital was originally built as the Cornwall County Asylum in 1818 to the design of architect John Foulston in the form of a star-shaped building with a central block and radiating wings. Now a Grade II* listed building, it was designed to deal with the problem of housing the insane poor and inmate conditions were notoriously bad. It was extended in 1844 by the construction of the three-storey „High Building“ (demolished in 1964) and again in 1849 by the construction of Williams House (converted into apartments in 2004). A third extension built in 1860 was known as the Carew building after the Rt Hon Reginald Pole Carew, a local politician. A fourth extension built in 1870 was known as the Long Building (later the Kendall Building) and was also demolished after it burned down in 1905.

A completely new building to stand to the west of the first was designed in 1901 by Silvanus Trevail (1851–1903), one of Cornwall’s best-known architects. The building was not completed until 1906, three years after the architect’s death. Described by Trevail’s biographer as „one of his finest achievements“, it was built in the Edwardian Baroque style. The new building was named the Foster building after the chairman of the Asylum Committee.

The whole complex was renamed the Hospital of St Lawrence when taken over by the National Health Service. In 1999 the original listed radial building was converted into residential apartments.

In 1840 William Robert Hicks was appointed domestic superintendent of the Cornwall county lunatic asylum, clerk of the asylum, and clerk to the committee of visitors at Bodmin, and soon after was also named clerk to the highway board. The Earl of Devon afterwards procured for him the additional situation of auditor of the metropolitan district asylums. When Hicks became connected with the Bodmin asylum he found the old system of management prevailing, and in conjunction with the medical superintendent introduced more humane modern methods. One patient who was chained in a dark cell as a dangerous lunatic turned out to be a wit and a philosopher. He was found to be harmless, and employed to take care of the pigs and do other useful work. He was—according to the Dictionary of National Biography—a very good man of business. He printed Statistics respecting the Food supplied to Paupers in the Western Unions of Cornwall

This was one of the hospitals investigated in 1967 as a result of the publication of Barbara Robb’s book „Sans Everything“. Evidence was given by a nursing assistant: „When I was new on my ward, and not been issued with a uniform, one old lady said to me ‘ You aren’t a nurse, dear; you can’t be. You don’t hit us or shout at us’. Another said ‘No-one smiles here. We are no good in here; useless, bloody wets’“.

The hospital finally closed in 2002 and the former hospital’s owners, Community First Cornwall, wished to demolish the Foster building in order to clear the site. Despite local support for its preservation, English Heritage declined a request to list the building on the grounds of insufficient reason. In May 2013 Cornwall Council decided that the demolition of the building did not require an environmental impact assessment, removing one of the last remaining obstacles to its removal. Although the Foster Hall Revival Trust began a campaign aimed at preserving the building and proposing alternatives to demolition, demolition started in September 2013.


Стадиал – таксономическая единица региональных климатостратиграфических подразделений, подчиненная климатолиту. Соответствует отложениям, сформировавшимся в течение кратковременных колебаний климата в пределах времени образования части климатолита в региональном масштабе: стадии оледенения и межстадиалы в криомерах, климатические оптимумы, промежуточные похолодания в термомерах и т.п. В соответствии с характером климатического режима употребляются термины «криостадиал» и «термостадиал». Стадиалы, как правило, отвечают региональным подгоризонтам, выделяемым в четвертичных отложениях.

Климатолит и стадиал должны иметь стратотип, который может быть ареальным.

Геохронологическим эквивалентом стадиала является стадия.

Климатолит и стадиал получают наименования от названий географических объектов в стратотипической местности. К названию стадиала при этом добавляется обозначение характера климатического режима (например Узунларский климатолит, лужский криостадиал, черменинский термостадиал).

Для обозначения геохронологических эквивалентов региональных климатостратиграфических подразделений используют названий соответствующих климатолитов и стадиалов.

Акротема • Эонотема • Эратема • Система • Отдел • Ярус • Хронозона • Раздел • Звено • Ступень

Горизонт • Слои с географическим названием

Комплекс • Серия • Свита • Пачка

Группа • Формация • Пачка • Пласт • Поток

Литодема • Комплекс

Органогенный массив • Олистострома • Клиноформа • Стратоген

Аллогруппа • Аллоформация • Аллопачка


Биостратиграфическая зона • Слои с фауной (флорой)

Климатолит • Стадиал


Bellanagare (Irish: Béal Átha na gCarr, meaning „ford-mouth of the carts“) is a village in County Roscommon, Ireland. The N5 national primary road passes through it as of 2008, though a by-pass is planned. The village is located between Tulsk and Frenchpark on the Dublin to Castlebar/Westport road.

The O’Conor Don ancestral lands were in County Roscommon centred on Clonalis House near Castlerea. Alexander O’Conor Don died in 1820 without male heirs and the title was inherited by the O’Conors of Bellanagare. Some members of the O’Conor family of Bellanagare were distinguished antiquarians, see the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. In 1828 O’Conor Don of Belanagar was a member of the Grand Panel of county Roscommon. At the time of Griffith’s Valuation, Charles Owen O’Conor was one of the principal lessors in the parishes of Kilcorkey and Kilkeevin, barony of Castlereagh. In the 1870s the O’Conor of Clonalis estate amounted to over 12,000 acres (49 km2) in county Roscommon with another 1,000 acres (4.0 km2) in county Sligo. At the same time Dennis O’Connor of Kingstown, county Dublin, brother of the O’Conor Don held 751 acres (3.04 km2) in county Roscommon and 287 in county Meath. In 1879 Charles Owen O’Conor offered for sale lands at Drimina, barony of Lyney, county Sligo. By March 1916 a final offer from the Congested Districts‘ Board for 1,368 acres (5.54 km2) belonging to Charles W. O’Conor, nephew of Charles Owen O’Conor Don had been accepted. A similar acreage (1,382) the estate of his mother Ellen I. O’Conor was vested in the Congested Districts‘ Board on 10 Feb 1916. The estate and family records are still held at Clonalis House. See www.clonalis.com for more information.

O’Conor, Charles, of Belanagare, a distinguished Irish scholar and antiquary, was born in 1710. [His family traced its descent from a younger brother of King Roderic O’Conor. His grand-uncle followed Charles II. into exile, was restored to his estates by the Act of Settlement, was a major in the service of James II., and died a prisoner in the Castle of Chester. At great cost, some 800 to 900 acres (324 to 364 ha) of poor land were rescued from the wreck of the family property.] Charles O’Conor being a Catholic, was debarred from the advancement due to his talents. But meagre particulars of his life are preserved. In 1754 he published a tract relative to Irish mining, and in 1766 the work by which he is best known — Dissertations on the History of Ireland.

He is spoken of with uniform respect by Irish scholars. Dr. O’Donovan styles him „this patriotic and venerable gentleman.. who understood the Irish language well,“ pays a tribute to his exertions for the preservation of Irish manuscripts, and acknowledges that it was his writings which first induced him to devote himself earnestly to the study of the annals of Ireland. Mr. Wyse, in his History of the Catholic Association, says: „The entire object of his long life seems to have been to redeem it [his country] from the self-ignorance, the blind impolicy, the national degradation to which it had been reduced. In this lofty and noble vocation, no man ever put out, with more perfect abandonment of all unworthy motive, the valuable gifts which he had received.“

Charles O’Conor died at Belanagare, 1 July 1791, aged 81. His valuable collection of manuscripts (containing the only then known original of the First Part of the Annals of the Four Masters), passed by purchase into the hands of the Marquis of Buckingham, and were later purchased as part of the Stowe manuscript collection by Bertram Ashburnham, 4th Earl of Ashburnham.

Bellanagare was the home of the O’Conor family including the well-known historian Charles O’Conor. He later built Hermitage House some distance away and Bellanagare Castle is now in ruins.

Built by Charles O’Conor (1710-1790) the antiquarian and head of the family circa 1760. His great great grandson Charles O’Conor was leasing the property at Ballaghcullia, valued at £10, to Honoria O’Conor at the time of Griffith’s Valuation. In 1749 the Census of Elphin records Denis O’Conor as being of „Ballinagar“. The house at Hermitage is still extant though not occupied and a modern bungalow has been constructed in front of it.

The Ballinagare Horse and Pony Racing club was Established in 2012. The first Annual race meeting and family day was held on 16 September 2012 in memory of the late Peter Finnerty, Which was a great success. The 2013 Race meeting/Family day will take place on Sunday 7 July 2013.

The Ballinagare cycling club held its first charity leisure cycle of 25 km (16 mi) on 3 June 2012 in aid of Cancer Care west. 2013’s charity cycle is due to take place on 4 August 2013.

Ballinagare football Club was established in August 2004 and since then has enjoyed success at both senior level and underage level. The club colours are orange with a black trim, play home games at Ballinagare Community Pitch. A new Astro Turf Pitch for the Club was opened in 2012 and situated beside the community centre.

Is a community run centre for the village and surrounding area. It runs Health & Leisure activities Spinning Classes – early morning and evenings -, Box Exercise Classes, walkers and joggers group, Pilates, step aerobics it has a fully equipped Gym, Astro Turf and Personal Trainer available.

The Western Gaels Club was formed in Fairymount Hall in 1962. Gerry Finneran, John Lavin and Fr. Gerry O’Rourke were the founder members who set up the club following the recommendation of a special committee of the County Board in that year.

The club area consists of the parishes of Frenchpark and Fairymount in West Roscommon, close to the towns of Castlerea and Ballaghaderreen. Prior to that there were clubs in both parishes but due to emigration both of these clubs were very weak. Probably the most famous son of the area is Dr. Douglas Hyde of Tibohone, who was Patron of the GAA from 1902 to 1915, and the first President of Ireland from 1938 to 1945. Ironically, he was banned from the GAA at Congress in 1939 for attending a soccer match. Another loyal servant to the GAA, Pádraig Ó Caoimh, Ard-Rúnaí 1939-1964 was born in the village of Ballinagare.

The amalgamation of both parishes proved very successful and success on the playing field began to come our way in the 1970s when the club won five juvenile titles. This in turn helped us to our first major title at adult level – the Junior County Championship in 1977



Untermaxfeld ist ein Pfarrdorf und Ortsteil von Königsmoos im Landkreis Neuburg-Schrobenhausen, der zum Regierungsbezirk Oberbayern in Bayern gehört.
Zur Gemarkung Untermaxfeld gehören auch noch die Dörfer Obermaxfeld, Rosing und Stengelheim und die Einöde Zitzelsheim. Seit der Gebietsreform gehört auch das Dorf Obergrasheim (ehemals Gemeinde Berg im Gau) zu Untermaxfeld. Die ehemaligen Ortsteile Neuschwetzingen und Kochheim gehören heute zur Gemeinde Karlshuld.

Untermaxfeld ist ein Straßendorf und liegt mitten im Donaumoos.

Verkehrstechnisch liegt Untermaxfeld durch seinen Ortsteil Stengelheim an der nordwestlich-südöstlich verlaufenden Staatsstraße St 2046, die von der Staatsstraße St 2035 bei Wagenhofen nahe Neuburg an der Donau nach Schrobenhausen führt. Südlich von Stengelheim und Untermaxfeld wird diese von der St 2049 von Pöttmes nach Ingolstadt gekreuzt.
Obermaxfeld wird von der Kreisstraße ND 13 durchquert, die von der Staatsstraße St 2035 bei Ehekirchen nach Neuburg an der Donau verläuft. Die Kreisstraße ND 14 aus Hörzhausen führt durch Obergrasheim und mündet bei Obermaxfeld in die ND 13.

Die Nachbarorte von Untermaxfeld und seinen Ortsteilen sind im Süden die Gemeinde Berg im Gau und Ludwigsmoos, im Westen der Ehekirchener Ortsteil Hollenbach und die Rohrenfelser Ortsteile Baiern, Rohrenfels und Neustetten, im Nordwesten, Norden und Nordosten die Neuburger Stadtteile Altmannstetten, Hardt, Fleischnershausen, Marienheim, Rödenhof und Zell und im Osten die Karlshulder Ortsteile Nazibühl, Karlshuld und Grasheim.

Frühe Spuren deuten bereits auf eine Besiedelung der Gegend in der Mittelsteinzeit (Sanddünenfunde bei Obermaxfeld, Rosing und Stengelheim) und Jungsteinzeit (Steinbeile, -hämmer und Pfeilspitzen, bei Untermaxfeld ein Bronzebeil) hin.
In den Jahren 1800 bis 1802 wanderten viele Familien aus den kurpfälzischen Gebieten links und rechts des Rheins aus und wurden von der bayerischen Regierung im Donaumoos angesiedelt. Zuerst wurden in Stengelheim linksrheinische Reformierte angesiedelt, dann entlang der Donaumoos-Ach linksrheinische Katholiken und zuletzt rechtsrheinische Leute. Diese Kolonie wurde nach dem ersten bayerischen König Maximilian I. Joseph Maxfeld genannt, später Untermaxfeld, nachdem 1803 nördlich davon Obermaxfeld entstanden war. 1805 gab es in Untermaxfeld 31 Familien (184 Einwohner) und in Obermaxfeld 21 Familien (135 Einwohner).
Stengelheim wurde als älteste Ansiedlung bereits 1795 durch Adrian von Riedl besiedelt, der auf Antrag auch die niedere Gerichtsbarkeit erhielt. Die Ortschaft wurde nach Stephan Freiherrn von Stengel benannt, einem wesentlichen Förderer der Donaumooskultur.
Rosing wurde 1795 gegründet. Die Siedlung wurde entlang des Zeller Kanals angelegt.
Zitzelsheim wurde 1808 gegründet und ist nach dem Siedler Michael Zitzelsberger benannt.
Obergrasheim gehörte ursprünglich zu Berg im Gau und ist wie auch Grasheim (ursprünglich Untergrasheim) nach dem Donaumoos-Aufseher Graßmeier benannt.

1804 wurde mit der evangelischen Pfarrei Untermaxfeld die erste offizielle evangelische Pfarrei in Altbayern eingeweiht, das Pfarrhaus wurde jedoch erst 1812 erbaut, die Kirche 1828.
Die katholische Pfarrei Sankt Josef in Untermaxfeld gehört zum Dekanat Neuburg-Schrobenhausen im Bistum Augsburg und wurde 1866 eingeweiht, die Kirche 1868 erbaut und 1988 durch einen Neubau ersetzt. Rosing und Zitzelsheim gehören zur Pfarrei Sankt Luzia in Zell.

Bis zum 1. Juli 1972 gehörte die selbstständige Gemeinde Untermaxfeld zum schwäbischen Landkreis Neuburg an der Donau und fiel dann mit der Gebietsreform in Bayern an den vergrößerten nunmehr oberbayerischen Landkreis Neuburg an der Donau, der am 1. Mai 1973 den Namen Landkreis Neuburg-Schrobenhausen erhielt. Am 1. Januar 1975 erfolgte der Zusammenschluss der drei Moosgemeinden Klingsmoos, Ludwigsmoos und Untermaxfeld zu Königsmoos.

Klingsmoos | Ludwigsmoos mit Achhäuser | Untermaxfeld mit Obergrasheim, Obermaxfeld, Rosing, Stengelheim und Zitzelsheim

Waldemar Schleip

Waldemar Schleip (* 26. Juli 1879 in Freiburg im Breisgau; † 16. Mai 1948 in Heidelberg) war ein deutscher Zoologe.

Nach dem Abitur studierte er Medizin und Zoologie und promovierte sowohl zum Doktor der Medizin als auch zum Doktor der Philosophie. 1906 folgte seine Habilitation an der Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg mit einer Habilitationsschrift zum Thema Die Samenreifung bei den Planarien.

Danach nahm er den Ruf auf eine Professur für Zoologie an der Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg und wurde Nachfolger von Theodor Boveri. Später kehrte er an die Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg zurück und lehrte dort bis zu seiner Emeritierung.

Daneben war er einige Jahre Mitglied des Vorstandes der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft (DZG) als Zweiter Vizepräsident von 1928 bis 1929 sowie als Präsident 1930. Im Anschluss war er 1931 Erster Vizepräsident der DZG.

1933 wurde er zum Mitglied der Deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina gewählt.

Neben seiner Lehr- und Forschungstätigkeit veröffentlichte er einige Fachbücher wie Die Entwicklung der Chromosomen im Ei von Planaria gonocephala Dugesia (1906), Anleitung zum praktischen Studium niederer Tiere : (Protozoa, Coelenterata, Vermes, Echinodermata) (1911), Über die Duplicitas cruciata bei den O. Schultz’schen Doppelbildungen von Rana fusca (1925), Entwicklungsmechanik und Vererbung bei Tieren (1927) sowie Die Determination der Primitiventwicklung (1929).

Des Weiteren war er Autor zahlreicher Aufsätze in Fachzeitschriften wie zum Beispiel Die Entwickelung der Kopfknochen bei dem Lachs und der Forelle (Anatomy and embryology, 1904, S. 331-427), Die Herkunft der Polarität des Eies von Ascaris megalocephala (Development genes and evolution, 1924, S. 573-598), Die Furchung dispermer Dentalium-Eier (Development genes and evolution, 1925, S. 86-123), Entwicklungsmechanik und Vererbung bei Tieren (Molecular genetics and genomics, 1930, S. 149-150) und August Weismanns Bedeutung für die Entwicklung der Zoologie und allgemeinen Biologie (Die Naturwissenschaften, 1934, S. 33-41).

TGV Lyria

TGV Lyria is the brand name used for TGV railway lines connecting France and Switzerland. Lyria is also a corporation that runs the service using the staff of SNCF in France and Swiss Federal Railways (SBB CFF FFS) in Switzerland – the staff consists of one French and one Swiss train manager on the whole journey.

Initially, the corporation was a groupement d’intérêt économique (GIE: „group of (shared) economic interest“) between SNCF and SBB CFF FFS whose goal was the creation of a TGV service between Gare de Lyon (Paris) and Lausanne/Bern. Today, the corporation is officially a limited company according to French law (Société par actions simplifiée / SAS ). SNCF owns 74% of the capital and SBB CFF FFS the remaining 26%.

Starting in mid-1961, the route between Paris and Lausanne was operated by the Trans Europ Express Cisalpin trains, which continued on to Milan. On January 22, 1984, this service was replaced by a new TGV service with tri-current locomotives, though service was cut back to Lausanne. In the spirit of the previous European expresses, the trains were christened with names: Champs-Elysées, Lemano, Lutetia and Cisalpin. On May 31, 1987, the train service was rebranded as EuroCity. By this time, a service to Bern was in place as well.

The GIE was created for the first time on May 23, 1993, to operate the segments between Paris and Lausanne/Bern. Service to Geneva was not covered at that time. During the winter of 1995–1996, a single roundtrip per day was extended from Lausanne to Brigue to stop at stations serving ski resorts in the Rhône Valley. As was the case with other trains with similar service, these trains were branded as TGV des Neiges. On September 28, 1997, the service was slightly reorganized and rebranded as Ligne de Cœur, with new livery applied to the rolling stock. On March 4, 2002, the name Lyria was applied for the first time to the service. The name then slowly came to stand for all TGV services between France and Switzerland and was applied to Paris–Geneva trains around January 2005. Service to Geneva had existed as part of LGV Sud-Est since 1981.

At the end of 2005, Lyria transported its 3 millionth passenger.

After the opening of the TGV Est in June 2007, Lyria service between Paris and Zurich began using the newly constructed line instead of the previous route, passing through Strasbourg, Colmar, Mulhouse and Basel. Consequently, service from Paris departed from Gare de l’Est instead of Gare de Lyon until 2011. The service now uses new stock, the TGV POS.

In February 2011, service improvements were announced, with a fleet of 19 TGV POS trains offering increased frequencies.

Since December 12, 2010, travel time on the Paris–Geneva line has improved with the reconstruction of the Haut-Bugey line, which connects Bourg-en-Bresse and Bellegarde-sur-Valserine. Until then, only the western part of the line was open (up to Oyonnax), and the project has restored the entire length of the line. Travel time between Paris and Geneva reduced by 30 minutes, to 3 hours and 5 minutes, and track capacity was also increased, allowing nine trains each way per day instead of the previous seven.

In 2011, with the completion of the LGV Rhin-Rhône, travel time between Paris and Basel/Zurich has been reduced by 30 minutes. The departure station in Paris has returned to Gare de Lyon.

Lyria runs the following routes:

For the route between Paris and Lausanne, Bern, and Zurich, new TGV Sud-Est tri-current trains are used, with 7 trains owned by SNCF and 2 owned by CFF (train nos. 112 & 114). Since summer 2006, 5 trains (nos. 110, 111, 113, 114, and 118) were renovated to offer a better quality of service. The maximum speed is attained on the LGV Sud-Est between Aisy-sous-Thil (west of Dijon) and Valenton (near Paris).

Service to Geneva is operated using „classic“ TGV Sud-Est equipment; that is, bi-current sets relieved by TGV Duplex. Trains, with the exception of those running to Geneva, used to carry the Ligne de cœur logo; this has been slowly replaced in 2006 with the TGV Lyria logo and only the old red-border livery remains. The CFF logo was also added to their cars during April 2006.

Since the opening of the LGV Est in 2007, service to Basel/Zurich is run by the new TGV POS as well as renovated TGV Réseau trains.

Internet television

Internet television (or online television) is the digital distribution of television content, such as TV shows, via the public Internet (which also carries other types of data), as opposed to dedicated terrestrial television via an over the air aerial system, cable television, and/or satellite television systems. It is also sometimes called web television, though this phrase is also used to describe the genre of TV shows broadcast only online.

Internet television is a type of over-the-top content (OTT content). „Over-the-top“ (OTT) is the delivery of audio, video, and other media over the Internet without the involvement of a multiple-system operator (such as a cable television provider) in the control or distribution of the content. It has several elements:

Examples include:

For a more complete list, see List of Internet television providers and List of video hosting services

The public Internet, which is used for transmission from the streaming servers to the consumer end-user.

The receiver must have an Internet connection, typically by Wi-fi or Ethernet, and could be:

Not all receiver devices can access all content providers. Most have websites that allow viewing of content in a web browser, but sometimes this is not done due to digital rights management concerns or restrictions. While a web browser has access to any website, some consumers find it inconvenient to control and interact with content with a mouse and keyboard, inconvenient to connect a computer to their television, or confusing. Many providers have mobile software applications („apps“) dedicated to receive only their own content. Manufacturers of SmartTVs, boxes, sticks, and players must decide which providers to support, typically based either on popularity, common corporate ownership, or receiving payment from the provider.

A display device, which could be:

As described above, „Internet television“ is „over-the-top technology“ (OTT). It is delivered through the open, unmanaged Internet, with the „last-mile“ telecom company acting only as the Internet service provider. Both OTT and IPTV use the Internet protocol suite over a packet-switched network to transmit data, but IPTV operates in a closed system – a dedicated, managed network controlled by the local cable, satellite, telephone, or fiber company. In its simplest form, IPTV simply replaces traditional circuit switched analog or digital television channels with digital channels which happen to use packet-switched transmission. In both the old and new systems, subscribers have set-top boxes or other customer-premises equipment that talks directly over company-owned or dedicated leased lines with central-office servers. Packets never travel over the public Internet, so the television provider can guarantee enough local bandwidth for each customer’s needs.

The Internet Protocol is a cheap, standardized way to provide two-way communication and also provide different data (e.g., TV show files) to different customers. This supports DVR-like features for time shifting television, for example to catch up on a TV show that was broadcast hours or days ago, or to replay the current TV show from its beginning. It also supports video on demand – browsing a catalog of videos (such as movies or syndicated television shows) which might be unrelated to the company’s scheduled broadcasts. IPTV has an ongoing standardization process (for example, at the European Telecommunications Standards Institute).

The Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV (HbbTV) consortium of industry companies (such as SES, Humax, Philips, and ANT Software) is currently promoting and establishing an open European standard (called HbbTV) for hybrid set-top boxes for the reception of broadcast and broadband digital television and multimedia applications with a single-user interface.

As of the 2010s, providers of Internet television use various technologies to provide a service such as peer-to-peer (P2P) technologies, VoD systems, and live streaming. BBC iPlayer makes use of the Adobe Flash Player to provide streaming-video clips and other software provided by Adobe for its download service. CNBC, Bloomberg Television and Showtime use live-streaming services from BitGravity to stream live television to paid subscribers using the HTTP protocol. DRM (digital rights management) software is also incorporated into many Internet television services. Sky Go has software that is provided by Microsoft to prevent content being copied. Internet television is also cross platform, the Sky Player service has been expanded to the Xbox 360 on October 27[when?] and to Windows Media Center and then to Windows 7 PCs on November 19[when?]. The BBC iPlayer is also available through Virgin Media’s on-demand service and other platforms such as FetchTV and games consoles including the Wii and the PlayStation 3. Other Internet-television platforms include mobile platforms such as the iPhone and iPod Touch, Nokia N96, Sony Ericsson C905 and many other mobile devices.

Samsung TV has also announced their plans to provide streaming options including 3D Video on Demand through their Explore 3D service.

Stream quality refers to the quality of the image and audio transferred from the servers of the distributor to the user’s home screen. Higher-quality video such as video in high definition (720p+) requires higher bandwidth and faster connection speeds. The generally accepted kbit/s download rate needed to stream high-definition video that has been encoded with H.264 is 3500 kbit/s, whereas standard-definition television can range from 500 to 1500 kbit/s depending on the resolution on screen. In the UK, the BBC iPlayer deals with the largest amount of traffic yet it offers HD content along with SD content. As more people get broadband connections which can deal with streaming HD video over the Internet, the BBC iPlayer has tried to keep up with demand and pace. However, as streaming HD video takes around 1.5 gb of data per hour of video the BBC has had to invest a lot of money collected from License Fee payers to implement this on such a large scale.

For users which do not have the bandwidth to stream HD video or even high-SD video which requires 1500 kbit/s, the BBC iPlayer offers lower bitrate streams which in turn lead to lower video quality. This makes use of an adaptive bitrate stream so that if the user’s bandwidth suddenly drops, iPlayer will lower its streaming rate to compensate. This diagnostic tool offered on the BBC iPlayer site measures a user’s streaming capabilities and bandwidth for free.

In the last few years[when?], Channel 4 has started providing HD content on its On Demand platforms such as iOS App, Android App and Channel4.com website. Although competitors in the UK such as Demand Five have not yet offered HD streaming[when?], the technology to support it is fairly new and widespread HD streaming is not an impossibility. The availability of Channel 4 and Five content on YouTube is predicted to prove incredibly popular as series such as Skins, Green Wing, The X Factor and others become available in a simple, straightforward format on a website which already attracts millions of people every day.

Internet television is common in most US households as of the mid 2010s. About one in four new televisions being sold is now a smart TV. Considering the vast popularity of smart TVs and devices such as the Roku and Chromecast, much of the US public can watch television via the internet. Internet-only channels are now established enough to feature some Emmy-nominated shows, such as Netflix’s House of Cards. Many networks also distribute their shows the next day to streaming providers such as Hulu Some networks may use a proprietary system, such as the BBC utilizes their iPlayer format. This has resulted in bandwidth demands increasing to the point of causing issues for some networks. It was reported in February 2014 that Verizon is having issues coping with the demand placed on their network infrastructure. Until long term bandwidth issues are worked out and regulation such at net neutrality Internet Televisions push to HDTV may start to hinder growth.

Before 2006, most services used peer-to-peer (P2P) networking, in which users downloaded an application and data would be shared between the users rather than the service provider giving the now more commonly used streaming method. Now most service providers have moved away from the P2P systems and are now using the streaming media. The old P2P service was selected because the existing infrastructure could not handle the bandwidth necessary for centralized streaming distribution. Some consumers didn’t like their upload bandwidth being consumed by their video player, which partially motivated the roll-out of centralized streaming distribution.

Aereo was launched in March 2012 in New York City (and subsequently stopped from broadcasting in June 2014). It streamed network TV only to New York customers over the Internet. Broadcasters filed lawsuits against Aereo, because Aereo captured broadcast signals and streamed the content to Aereo’s customers without paying broadcasters. In mid-July 2012, a federal judge sided with the Aereo start-up. Aereo planned to expand to every major metropolitan area by the end of 2013. The Supreme Court ruled against Aero June 24, 2014.

Many providers of Internet television services exist including conventional television stations that have taken advantage of the Internet as a way to continue showing television shows after they have been broadcast often advertised as „on-demand“ and „catch-up“ services. Today, almost every major broadcaster around the world is operating an Internet television platform. Examples include the BBC, which introduced the BBC iPlayer on 25 June 2008 as an extension to its „RadioPlayer“ and already existing streamed video-clip content, and Channel 4 that launched 4oD („4 on Demand“) (now All 4) in November 2006 allowing users to watch recently shown content. Most Internet television services allow users to view content free of charge; however, some content is for a fee.

Controlling content on the Internet presents a challenge for most providers; to try to ensure that a user is allowed to view content such as content with age certificates, providers use methods such as parental controls that allows restrictions to be placed upon the use and access of certificated material. The BBC iPlayer makes use of a parental control system giving parents the option to „lock“ content, meaning that a password would have to be used to access it. Flagging systems can be used to warn a user that content may be certified or that it is intended for viewing post-watershed. Honour systems are also used where users are asked for their dates of birth or age to verify if they are able to view certain content.

An archive is a collection of information and media much like a library or interactive-storage facility. It is a necessity for an on-demand media service to maintain archives so that users can watch content that has already been aired on standard-broadcast television. However, these archives can vary from a few weeks to months to years, depending on the curator and the type of content. For example, the BBC iPlayer’s shows are in general available for up to seven days after their original broadcast. This so-called „seven-day catch-up“ model seems to become an industry standard for Internet television services in many countries around the world. However, some shows may only be available for shorter periods. Others, such as the BBC’s Panorama, may be available for an extended period because of the show’s documentary nature or its popularity.

In contrast, All 4, Channel 4’s on-demand service offers many of its television shows that were originally aired years ago. An example of this is the comedy The IT Crowd where users can view the full series on the Internet player. The same is true for other hit Channel 4 comedies such as The Inbetweeners and Black Books. The benefit of large archives is that they bring in far more users who, in turn, watch more media, leading to a wider audience base and more advertising revenue. Large archives will also mean the user will spend more time on that website rather than a competitors, leading to „starvation“ of demand for the competitors. Having an extensive archive, however, can bring problems along with benefits. Large archives are expensive to maintain and large server farms and mass storage is needed, along with ample bandwidth to transmit it all. Vast archives can be hard to catalogue and sort so that they are accessible to users.

Broadcasting rights vary from country to country and even within provinces of countries. These rights govern the distribution of copyrighted content and media and allow the sole distribution of that content at any one time. An example of content only being aired in certain countries is BBC iPlayer. The BBC checks a user’s IP address to make sure that only users located in the UK can stream content from the BBC. The BBC only allows free use of their product for users within the UK as those users have paid for a television license that funds part of the BBC. This IP address check is not foolproof as the user may be accessing the BBC website through a VPN or proxy server. Broadcasting rights can also be restricted to allowing a broadcaster rights to distribute that content for a limited time. Channel 4’s online service All 4 can only stream shows created in the US by companies such as HBO for thirty days after they are aired on one of the Channel 4 group channels. This is to boost DVD sales for the companies who produce that media.

Some companies pay very large amounts for broadcasting rights with sports and US sitcoms usually fetching the highest price from UK-based broadcasters. A trend among major content producers in North America[when?] is the use of the „TV Everywhere“ system. Especially for live content, the TV Everywhere system restricts viewership of a video feed to select Internet service providers, usually cable television companies that pay a retransmission consent or subscription fee to the content producer. This often has the negative effect of making the availability of content dependent upon the provider, with the consumer having little or no choice on whether they receive the product.

With the advent of broadband internet Connections multiple streaming providers have come onto the market in the last couple of years. The main providers are Netflix, Hulu and Amazon. Some of these providers such as Hulu advertise and charge a monthly fee. Other such as Netflix and Amazon charge users a monthly fee and have no commercials. Netflix is the largest provider; it has over 43 million members and its membership numbers are growing[when?][citation needed]. The rise of internet TV has resulted in cable companies losing customers to a new kind of customer called „Cord Cutters“. Cord cutters are consumers who are cancelling their cable TV or satellite TV subscriptions and choosing instead to stream TV shows, movies and other content via the Internet. Cord cutters are forming communities. With the increasing availability of video sharing websites (e.g., YouTube) and streaming services, there is an alternative to cable and satellite television subscriptions. Cord cutters tend to be younger people.

White House Office of the Curator

The White House Office of the Curator is charged with the conservation and study of the collection of fine art, furniture and decorative objects used to furnish both the public and private rooms of the White House as an official residence and as an accredited historic house museum.

The office began during the administration of President John F. Kennedy while First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy oversaw the restoration of the White House. The office is located in the ground floor of the White House Executive Residence. The office, headed by the Curator of the White House, includes an Associate Curator, an Assistant Curator, and a Curatorial Assistant. The office works with the Chief Usher, the Committee for the Preservation of the White House and the White House Historical Association.

The Curator of the White House, or less formally White House Curator, is head of the White House Office of the Curator which is charged with the conservation and study of the collection of fine art, furniture and decorative objects used to furnish both the public and private rooms of the White House.

The position was begun during the administration of President John F. Kennedy while First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy oversaw the restoration of the White House. The first Curator of the White House was Lorraine Waxman Pearce who was appointed in March 1961. Pearce was a graduate of the preservation program at the Winterthur Museum.

To date seven curators have served in the White House; they are:

Suriname op de Olympische Zomerspelen 2012

Suriname nam deel aan de Olympische Zomerspelen 2012 in Londen, Verenigd Koninkrijk.

(m) = mannen, (v) = vrouwen

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Damenskijacken | BOGNER Skijacken Damen

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