Sethu (film)

Sethu… is a 1999 Indian Tamil romantic drama film written and directed by debutant Bala. The film stars Vikram and Abitha in the lead roles with Sivakumar and Sriman in other pivotal roles. The film’s score and soundtrack were composed by Ilaiyaraaja.

The film opened in December 1999 at a single suburban theatre but later became a popular commercial success. Sethu won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Tamil and secured wins in the Best Film category at the Filmfare Awards and the Cinema Express Awards, while Bala and Vikram won several awards for their contributions to the film.

Sethu aka Chiyaan (Vikram) is a rough and macho college rowdy and also The Students Union Chairman of the college, who uses violence as the only way to deal with people. He lives with his brother, a Magistrate (Sivakumar), and his sister-in-law, who is the only person who seems to understand him properly.

The movie opens with Sethu winning the elections to the office bearers of the college’s Students Union followed by celebrations and in-campus fight between the rival candidates.

Sethu has a staple diet of yes-sir friends surrounding him. He comes across a timid girl, Abitha, who is the daughter of a poor temple priest, and starts to woo her. When she initially rejects him, he kidnaps her and forces her to fall in love with him.

When the girl falls in love with him, Sethu is attacked by brothel goons and ends up in a temple ashram with brain damage With no memory of his past and having developed an unusual behaviour, he starts to recollect memories. At one point, he is completely back to his normal self and tries to escape by climbing over the gates. Unfortunately, he fails and ends up with serious injuries.

Whilst sleeping with his injury, Abitha makes a surprise visit. However Sethu is asleep and she leaves with this woeful memory of him. As she is about to leave the institution, he wakes up and realises that she had come to see him. As he calls out, she leaves unable to hear him.

Persistent to meet her he makes another attempt to leave the institution and this time he is successful. When he arrives at her house he is presented with his love unfortunately dead. He realises that she had committed suicide.

Distraught after what he saw, he just walks out and at that point he is met with the mental institution wardens who came chasing after him. The film ends with Sethu leaving with them as he has nothing to live for after his true love’s death.

Bala, an erstwhile assistant of Balu Mahendra wrote the script of the film, then titled Akhil, in the mid 1990s and offered the film’s lead role to his housemate Vignesh who refused the film. The film was based on a real life incident of a friend of Bala’s, who had fallen in love, lost his mind and ended up at a mental asylum. Murali was then also considered for the lead role in the project, but did not sign up. In 1997, debutant director Bala offered Vikram the role of the rogue, Sethu (Chiyaan), in the film of the same name. Keerthi Reddy was initially signed on to play the lead female role, but was later replaced by Rajshri and then subsequently Abitha. To prepare for the character, Vikram shaved his head, thinned down to half his size by losing 21 kilograms and grew nails for the role. Furthermore, Bala did not want Vikram to accept any other offers during this period in order to maintain the continuity of his looks, and asked him to cease working as dubbing artiste. The film’s launch was held in April 1997 and production lasted close to two years as the film languished in development hell. The FEFSI strike of 1997 halted filming across the Tamil film industry from June to December 1997 and as a small budget film, Sethu was unable to progress during the period. When the strike was called off, the producer left the project and Vikram and Bala’s assistant Ameer had to go and plead the producer to return, with filming resuming in January 1998. After further slow progress, the film was finally ready in June 1999. M. S. Bhaskar lent his voice for S. S. Raman who appeared as temple priest in this film. Rathnavelu who worked as a cameraman revealed that he gave the asylum scenes a predominantly green tone for the intense psychological impact.

The film struggled to find a distributor and only after sixty seven screenings did the film manage to find a buyer, with most refusing the film due to the tragic climax. During the period, Bala and Vikram used Vikram’s wife Shailaja’s money to organise press previews and despite garnering good reviews, no one was interested in purchasing the film and it remained finished but unreleased. Vikram has since described the period of production as „the worst phase of his career“ as he was weak economically, and „his fire was in danger of dying down“.

The film released was released on 10 December 1999, and initially began running at a single noon show at a suburban theatre but gradually built up audiences through word-of-mouth publicity and ran over a 100 days at several cinema halls across Chennai, with Vikram being mobbed by people on the streets as a result of the film’s success. Critics lapped up Vikram’s performance with reviewer Easwaran Haricharan of Indolink stating that „Vikram is a revelation“ and that „he is very natural and his acting in last few scenes are just too good and could even be compared with the best we have seen“. Similarly, a critic from the New Straits Times described the film as an „unforgettable experience“ and described Vikram’s performance as „praise-worthy“.

The following year, Sethu won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Tamil, while also securing wins in the Best Film category at the Filmfare Awards and the Cinema Express Awards. Bala won the Tamil Nadu State Film Award for Best Director and the Filmfare Award for Best Director – Tamil for his directorial debut. The performance also drew accolades for Vikram who won the Filmfare Special Award – South and the Tamil Nadu State Film Award Special Prize for his portrayal of the title character, he was nominated for the National Film Award for Best Actor but lost to Mohanlal. Post-success, Vikram has described the film would have been close to him regardless of the commercial success and that it put him on the „right path“, with Vikram choosing to adapt the prefix of Chiyaan to his screen name. Owing to its success, the film was remade in Hindi as Tere Naam starring Salman Khan which became a success and also in Kannada as Huchcha which gave a major breakthrough to actor Sudeep. Jeevitha then remade the film in Telugu as Seshu with her husband Rajasekhar playing the lead.

The film was a milestone in the career of Vikram who was struggling for breakthrough and the success of the film made Bala as one of the most sought directors in the industry. The film continued the trend of films with different themes that focused on realism and nativity. K. Jeshi of The Hindu placed the film in the category of films that propagate social issues along with other films like Kaadhal (2004), Veyil (2006), Mozhi (2007) and Paruthiveeran (2007).

Sethu was parodied in various films. In a comedy scene from Alli Thandha Vaanam (2001), Vivek who acts as a Tamil teacher would lie in the same position similar to Vikram and the song „Enge Sellum Indha Paadhai“ would play in the background. The scene where Vikram kidnaps and threatens Abitha to accept his love was imitated by Vadivelu in Style (2002). In Ragasiyamai (2003), Karunas who appears as a barber shows to a person (who asked for hairstyle of Kuruthipunal Kamal) that one of his customers is lying in a position similar to Vikram’s from Sethu.

The soundtrack album and background score were composed by Isaignani Ilaiyaraaja. The lyrics were penned by Arivumathi, Palani Bharathi, Mu Metha and Ilaiyaraaja.

Tracklist

Empress Liu (Tang dynasty)

Empress Liu (劉皇后, personal name unknown) (died 693), formally Empress Sumingshunsheng (肅明順聖皇后, literally „the solemn, understanding, serene, and holy empress“) or Empress Suming (肅明皇后) in short, was an empress of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty. She was the wife of Emperor Ruizong.

It is not known when the future Empress Liu was born. Her grandfather Liu Dewei (劉德威) had served as the minister of justice and her father Liu Yanjing (劉延景) as a prefect. During the Emperor Gaozong’s Yifeng era (676-679), Emperor Gaozong’s son Li Dan, who was then an imperial prince, took her initially as a concubine, and then as his wife and princess. She bore him three children—a son named Li Chengqi, and two daughters (the later Princesses Shouchang and Dai).

As of 684, Emperor Gaozong had died and his son Li Zhe (Li Dan’s older brother) had become emperor (as Emperor Zhongzong). In spring 684, Emperor Zhongzong showed signs of independence from his (and Li Dan’s) mother Empress Dowager Wu (later known as Wu Zetian), who wielded most of the actual power, and she deposed Emperor Zhongzong, replacing him with Li Dan (as Emperor Ruizong), but held power even more securely after that point. As Emperor Ruizong’s wife, Princess Liu was created empress, and her son Li Chengqi was created crown prince.

In 690, Empress Dowager Wu forced Emperor Ruizong to yield the throne to her, and she took the throne as „emperor“ of a new Zhou Dynasty, interrupting Tang Dynasty. She created Li Dan crown prince instead (with the unconventional title Huangsi (皇嗣)), and further changed his name to Wu Dan. Empress Liu became crown princess.

In 693, one of Wu Zetian’s trusted ladies in waiting, Wei Tuan’er (韋團兒), was, for reasons lost to history, said to be resentful of Wu Dan. To attack him, she decided to first falsely accuse Crown Princess Liu and one of Wu Dan’s concubines, Consort Dou, of witchcraft. On an occasion when both Crown Princess Liu and Consort Dou were in the palace to greet Wu Zetian, Wu Zetian waited until they left her presence, and then sent assassins to kill them. Their bodies were buried inside the palace, and the location was kept secret. Wu Dan, fearful of what his mother might do next, said nothing of the loss of his wife and concubine. When Wei Tuan’er considered further falsely accusing Wu Dan, her plans were leaked to Wu Zetian, and Wu Zetian executed her.

In 710, Wu Dan (whose name had been restored to Li Dan by that point after Tang Dynasty’s restoration in 705 under Emperor Zhongzong, who was restored that year) became emperor after Emperor Zhongzong’s death. He honored Empress Liu as Empress Suming and Consort Dou (whose son Li Longji (the later Emperor Xuanzong) had been made the Prince of Shouchun) as Empress Zhaocheng, and he sought to locate their bodies for reburial, but could not locate them. He therefore carried out ceremonies where their spirits were summoned to caskets to be buried at an imperial tomb. After Emperor Ruizong’s own death in 716, on account of Emperor Xuanzong’s desire to honor his mother Consort Dou, Empress Liu was initially not worshipped together with Emperor Ruizong at the imperial ancestral temple, but eventually was, in 732.

Clarisse Hahn

Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en l’améliorant (comment ?). Pour plus d’informations, voyez le projet associé.

Présentation du film Kurdish lover par Clarisse Hahn.

Clarisse Hahn (née en 1973 à Paris) est une réalisatrice, vidéaste et photographe française.

À travers ses films, ses photographies et ses installations vidéo, Clarisse Hahn poursuit une recherche documentaire sur les communautés, les codes comportementaux et le rôle social du corps.

Elle est professeur de vidéo à l’École nationale supérieure des arts décoratifs de Paris.

Prix du meilleur film – compétition internationale, forumdoc, Belo Horizonte, Brésil. (Kurdish lover). Grand prix de la compétition internationale, festival Traces de vie, Clermont-Ferrand, France. (pour Kurdish lover)

Horse meat

Horse meat (or horse beef) is the culinary name for meat cut from a horse. It is a major meat in only a few countries, notably in Tonga and Central Asia, but it forms a significant part of the culinary traditions of many others, from Europe to South America to Asia. The top eight countries consume about 4.7 million horses a year. For the majority of humanity’s early existence, wild horses were hunted as a source of protein. It is slightly sweet, tender and low in fat.

Because of the role horses have played as companions and as workers, and ensuing concerns about the ethics of the horse slaughter process, it is a taboo food in some cultures , for example the Romani, whose culture contains a rich history of equine husbandry. These historical associations, as well as ritual and religion, led to the development of an aversion to the consumption of horse meat in some cultures. The horse is now given pet status by many in some parts of the Western world, particularly in the United States, United Kingdom, and Ireland, which further solidifies the taboo on eating its meat.[citation needed]

In the Paleolithic, wild horses formed an important source of food. In many parts of Europe, the consumption of horse meat continued throughout the Middle Ages until modern times, despite a papal ban of horse meat in 732. Horse meat was also eaten as part of Germanic pagan religious ceremonies in northern Europe, particularly ceremonies associated with the worship of Odin.[citation needed]

Horses originally developed on the North American Continent, and about 15,000 years ago migrated to other parts of the world.[citation needed] The largest fossil beds of horses is in Idaho at the Hagerman Fossil Beds, a national monument. The horses were about the size of a modern-day Arabian horse. The Europeans‘ horses that came over to the Americas with the Spaniards and followed by the settlers became feral, and were hunted by the indigenous Pehuenche people of what is now Chile and Argentina. At first, they hunted horses as they did other game, but later they began to raise them for meat and transport. The meat was, and still is, preserved by being sun-dried in the high Andes into a product known as charqui.

France dates its taste for horse meat to the Revolution. With the fall of the aristocracy, its auxiliaries had to find new means of subsistence. Just as hairdressers and tailors set themselves up to serve commoners, the horses maintained by aristocracy as a sign of prestige ended up alleviating the hunger of lower classes. During the Napoleonic campaigns, the surgeon-in-chief of Napoleon’s Grand Army, Baron Dominique-Jean Larrey, advised the starving troops to eat the meat of horses. At the siege of Alexandria, the meat of young Arab horses relieved an epidemic of scurvy. At the battle of Eylau in 1807, Larrey served horse as soup and bœuf à la mode. At Aspern-Essling (1809), cut off from the supply lines, the cavalry used the breastplates of fallen cuirassiers as cooking pans and gunpowder as seasoning, and thus founded a tradition that carried on until at least the Waterloo campaign.

Horse meat gained widespread acceptance in French cuisine during the later years of the Second French Empire. The high cost of living in Paris prevented many working-class citizens from buying meat such as pork or beef, so in 1866, the French government legalized the eating of horse meat and the first butcher’s shop specializing in horse meat opened in eastern Paris, providing quality meat at lower prices. During the Siege of Paris (1870–1871), horse meat was eaten by anyone who could afford it, partly because of a shortage of fresh meat in the blockaded city, and also because horses were eating grain which was needed by the human populace. Many Parisians gained a taste for horse meat during the siege, and after the war ended, horse meat remained popular. Likewise, in other places and times of siege or starvation, horses are viewed as a food source of last resort.

Despite the general Anglophone taboo, horse and donkey meat was eaten in Britain, especially in Yorkshire, until the 1930s, and in times of postwar food shortage surged in popularity in the United States and was considered for use in hospitals. A 2007 Time magazine article about horse meat brought in from Canada to the United States characterized the meat as sweet, rich, superlean, oddly soft meat, and closer to beef than venison.

Horse is commonly eaten in many countries in Europe and Asia. It is not a generally available food in some English-speaking countries such as the United Kingdom, Australia, Ireland, the United States, and English Canada. It is also taboo in Brazil, Israel, and among the Romani people and Jewish people the world over. Horse meat is not generally eaten in Spain, except in the north, although the country exports horses both live animals and slaughtered meat for the French and Italian markets. Horse meat is consumed in some North American and Latin American countries, and is illegal in some countries. For example, the Food Standards Code of Australia and New Zealand definition of ‚meat‘ does not include horse. In Tonga, horse meat is eaten nationally, and Tongan emigrees living in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia have retained the taste for it, claiming Christian missionaries originally introduced it to them.

In Islamic laws, consuming horse meat is makruh or discouraged, although it is not haram or forbidden. The consumption of horse meat has been common in Central Asia societies, past or present, due to the abundance of steppes suitable for raising horses. In North Africa, horse meat has been occasionally consumed, but almost exclusively by the Christian Copts and the Hanafi Sunnis (a common form of Islam in Central Asia and Turkey), but has never been eaten in the Maghreb.

Horse meat is forbidden by Jewish dietary laws because horses do not have cloven hooves and they are not ruminants.

In the eighth century, Popes Gregory III and Zachary instructed Saint Boniface, missionary to the Germans, to forbid the eating of horse meat to those he converted, due to its association with Germanic pagan ceremonies. The people of Iceland allegedly expressed reluctance to embrace Christianity for some time, largely over the issue of giving up horse meat. Horse meat is now currently consumed in Iceland and many horses are raised for this purpose. The culturally close people of Sweden still have an ambivalent attitude to horse meat, said to stem from this time.

Henry Mayhew describes the difference in the acceptability and use of the horse carcass in London and Paris in London Labour and the London Poor (1851). Horse meat was rejected by the British, but continued to be eaten in other European countries such as France and Germany, where knackers often sold horse carcasses despite the papal ban. Even the hunting of wild horses for meat continued in the area of Westphalia. Londoners also suspected that horse meat was finding its way into sausages, and that offal sold as that of oxen was in fact equine. About 1,000 horses were slaughtered a week.

While no taboo on eating horse meat exists per se, it is generally considered by ethnic Russians to be a low-quality meat with poor taste, and it is rarely found in stores.

It is popular among such peoples as Tatars, Yakuts, Kyrgyzs, and Kazakhs.

In 732 AD, Pope Gregory III began a concerted effort to stop the ritual consumption of horse meat in pagan practice. In some countries, the effects of this prohibition by the Roman Catholic Church have lingered and horse meat prejudices have progressed from taboos, to avoidance, to abhorrence. In other parts of the world, horse meat has the stigma of being something poor people eat and is seen as a cheap substitute for other meats, such as pork and beef.

According to the anthropologist Marvin Harris, some cultures class horse meat as taboo because the horse converts grass into meat less efficiently than ruminants.

Totemistic taboo is also a possible reason for refusal to eat horse meat as an everyday food, but did not necessarily preclude ritual slaughter and consumption. Roman sources state that the goddess Epona was widely worshipped in Gaul and southern Britain. Epona, a triple aspect goddess, was the protectress of the horse and horse keepers, and horses were sacrificed to her; she was paralleled by the Irish Macha and Welsh Rhiannon. In The White Goddess, Robert Graves argued that the taboo among Britons and their descendants was due to worship of Epona, and even earlier rites. The Uffington White Horse is probable evidence of ancient horse worship. The ancient Indian Kshatriyas engaged in horse sacrifice (Ashwamedh Yaghya) as recorded in the Vedas and Ramayana; but within context of the ritual sacrificial is not being ‚killed‘ but instead being smothered to death. In 1913, the Finnic Mari people of the Volga region were observed to practice a horse sacrifice.

In ancient Scandinavia, the horse was very important, as a living, working creature, as a sign of the owner’s status, and symbolically within the old Norse religion. Horses were slaughtered as a sacrifice to the gods and the meat was eaten by the people taking part in the religious feasts. When the Nordic countries were Christianized, eating horse meat was regarded as a sign of paganism and prohibited. A reluctance to eat horse meat is still common in these countries even today.

In most countries where horses are slaughtered for food, they are processed in a similar fashion to cattle, i.e., in large-scale factory slaughter houses (abattoirs) where they are stunned with a captive bolt gun and bled to death. In countries with a less industrialized food production system, horses and other animals are slaughtered individually outdoors as needed, in the village where they will be consumed, or near to it.

In 2005, the eight principal horse meat-producing countries produced over 700,000 tonnes of this product.

In 2005, the five biggest horse meat-consuming countries were China (421,000 tonnes), Mexico, Russia, Italy, and Kazakhstan (54,000 tonnes). In 2010, Mexico produced 140,000 tonnes, China – 126,000 tonnes, Kazakhstan – 114,000 tonnes.

As horses are relatively poor converters of grass and grain to meat compared to cattle, they are not usually bred or raised specifically for their meat. Instead, horses are slaughtered when their monetary value as riding or work animals is low, but their owners can still make money selling them for horse meat, for example in the routine export of the southern English ponies from the New Forest, Exmoor, and Dartmoor. British law requires the use of „equine passports“ even for semiwild horses to enable traceability (also known as „provenance“), so most slaughtering is done in the UK before the meat is exported, meaning that the animals travel as carcasses rather than live. Ex-racehorses, riding horses, and other horses sold at auction may also enter the food chain; sometimes these animals have been stolen or purchased under false pretenses. Even prestigious horses may end up in the slaughterhouse; the 1986 Kentucky Derby winner and 1987 Eclipse Award for Horse of the Year winner, Ferdinand, is believed to have been slaughtered in Japan, probably for pet food.

A misconception exists that horses are commonly slaughtered for pet food, however. In many countries, like the United States, horse meat was outlawed in pet food in the 1970s. American horse meat is considered a delicacy in Europe and Japan, and its cost is in line with veal, so it would be prohibitively expensive in many countries for pet food.

The British newspaper The Daily Mail reports that every year, 100,000 live horses are transported into and around the European Union for human consumption, mainly to Italy, but also to France and Belgium.

Meat from horses that veterinarians have put down with a lethal injection is not suitable for human consumption, as the toxin remains in the meat; the carcasses of such animals are sometimes cremated (most other means of disposal are problematic, due to the toxin).[citation needed] Remains of euthanized animals can be rendered, which maintains the value of the skin, bones, fats, etc., for such purposes as fish food. This is commonly done for lab specimens (e.g., pigs) euthanized by injection. The amount of drug (e.g. a barbiturate) is insignificant after rendering.[citation needed]

Carcasses of horses treated with some drugs are considered edible in some jurisdictions. For example, according to Canadian regulation, hyaluron, used in treatment of particular disorders in horses, in HY-50 preparation, should not be administered to animals to be slaughtered for horse meat. In Europe, however, the same preparation is not considered to have any such effect, and edibility of the horse meat is not affected.

The killing of horses for human consumption is widely opposed in countries such as the U.S., UK[not in citation given] and Australia.[not in citation given] where horses are generally considered to be companion and sporting animals only. Almost all equine medications and treatments are labeled as being not intended for human consumption.[citation needed] In the European Union, horses intended for slaughter cannot be treated with many medications commonly used for U.S. horses.[citation needed] For horses going to slaughter, no period of withdrawal, the time between administration of the drug and the time they are butchered, is required. French actress and animal rights activist Brigitte Bardot has spent years crusading against the eating of horse meat. However, the opposition is far from unanimous; a 2007 readers‘ poll in the London magazine Time Out showed that 82% of respondents supported chef Gordon Ramsay’s decision to serve horse meat in his restaurants.

Horse meat has a slightly sweet taste reminiscent of a combination of beef and venison. Meat from younger horses tends to be lighter in color, while older horses produce richer color and flavor, as with most mammals. Horse meat can be used to replace beef, pork, mutton, venison, and any other meat in virtually any recipe. Horse meat is usually very lean. Jurisdictions which allow for the slaughter of horses for food rarely have age restrictions, so many are quite old. Those preparing sandwiches or cold meals with horse meat usually use it smoked and salted. It forms an ingredient in several traditional recipes of salami.

In 2009, a British agriculture industry website reported these horse meat production levels in various countries:

Australians do not generally eat horse meat, although they have a horse slaughter industry that exports to Japan, Europe, and Russia. Horse meat exports peaked at 9,327 tons 1986, declining to 3,000 tons in 2003. The two abattoirs in Australia licensed to export horse meat are Belgian-owned. They are at Peterborough in South Australia (Metro Velda Pty Ltd) and Caboolture Abattoir in Queensland (Meramist Pty Ltd). A British agriculture industry website reported that Australian horse meat production levels had risen to 24,000 tons by 2009.

On 30 June 2010, Western Australian Agriculture Minister Terry Redman granted final approval to Western Australia butcher Vince Garreffa to sell horse meat for human consumption. Nedlands restaurateur Pierre Ichallalene announced plans to do a taster on Bastille Day and to put horse meat dishes on the menu if the reaction is good. Mr. Redman said that the government would „consider extending approvals should the public appetite for horse demand it“.

Mr. Garreffa is the owner of Mondo Di Carne, a major wholesale meat supplier which supplies many cafes, restaurants, and hotels in Western Australia. He commented that no domestic market exists for horse meat, but a successful export market exists, of which he believes Western Australia should have a share.

This decision caused outrage amongst some groups, limited reaction from many, and enthusiasm from others. Several local newspaper forums indicated that the general public were not greatly biased either way, in fact many voiced their openness for alternative meats.[citation needed]

Horse meat consumption has continued as a niche market in Australia, with further potential for growth as gourmet interests develop.[citation needed]

Although it is generally acceptable to Chinese people, outside of specific areas such as Guilin in Guangxi or in Yunnan Province, horse meat is not popular due to its low availability and rumors that horse meat tastes bad or it is bad for health. Because the Compendium of Materia Medica written in Ming dynasty by Li Shizhen indicates that horse meat is poisonous and may cause folliculitis or death. The Compendium of Materia Medica also asserts, „To relieve toxin caused by eating horse meat, one can drink Phragmites root jouce and eat apricot kernel.“ Today, in southern China, locally famous dishes include horse meat rice noodles (马肉米粉; Pinyin: mǎròu mǐfěn) in Guilin and horce meat hot pot(马肉火锅; Pinyin: mǎròu huǒguō) in Huishui County in Guizhou Province. In the northwest, Kazakh people eat horse meat.

In Indonesia, one type of satay (chunks of skewered grilled meat served with spicy sauce) known as horse satay (Javanese:sate jaran, Indonesian:sate kuda) is made from horse meat. This delicacy from Yogyakarta is served with sliced fresh shallot, pepper, and sweet soy sauce.

In Japanese cuisine, raw horse meat is called sakura (?) or sakuraniku (桜肉?, sakura means cherry blossom, niku means meat) because of its pink color. It can be served raw as sashimi in thin slices dipped in soy sauce, often with ginger and onions added. In this case, it is called basashi (馬刺し?). Basashi is popular in some regions of Japan and is often served at izakaya bars. Fat, typically from the neck, is also found as basashi, though it is white, not pink. Horse meat is also sometimes found on menus for yakiniku (a type of barbecue), where it is called baniku (馬肉?, literally „horse meat“) or bagushi (馬串?, „skewered horse“); thin slices of raw horse meat are sometimes served wrapped in a shiso leaf. Kumamoto, Nagano, and Ōita are famous for basashi, and it is common in the Tohoku region, as well. Some types of canned „corned meat“ in Japan include horse as one of the ingredients.

Aside raising local draft horses for meat, Japan imports living horses (from Canada) and meat from several countries – five largest are Canada, Mexico, Italy, Argentina and Brazil.

In Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, horse meat is a large part of the diet, due mainly to the nomadic roots of the population. Some of the dishes include sausages called kazy and chuchuk or shuzhyk made from the meat using the guts as the sausage skin, zhaya made from hip meat which is smoked and boiled, jal made from neck fat which is smoked and boiled, karta made from a section of the rectum which is smoked and boiled, and sur-et which is kept as dried meat.

Mongolia, a nation famous for its nomadic pastures and equestrian skills, also includes horse meat on the menu. Mongolians also make a horse milk wine called airag. Salted horse meat sausages called kazy are produced as a regional delicacy by the Kazakhs in Bayan-Ölgii aimag. In modern times, Mongols prefer beef and mutton, though during the extremely cold Mongolian winter, many people prefer horse meat due to its low cholesterol. It is kept unfrozen, and traditionally people think horse meat helps warm them up.

Other Asian nations import processed horse meat from Mongolia.

In the Philippines, horse meat (lukba, tapang kabayo, or kabayo) is a delicacy commonly sold in wet markets. The method of preparation is very common which includes marinating the meat in calamansi or lemon juice, toyo (soy sauce), and patís (fish sauce). It is then fried and served, and often dipped into vinegar to give the meat a tart flavour.

In South Korea, horse meat is generally not eaten, but raw horse meat, usually around the neck part, is consumed as a delicacy on Jeju Island. It is usually seasoned with soy sauce and sesame oil.

In Tonga, horsemeat or lo’i ho’osi is much more than just a delicacy; the consumption of horsemeat is generally only reserved for special occasions. These special occasions may include the death of an important family member or community member or as a form of celebration during the birthday of an important family member or perhaps the visitation of someone important, such as the King of Tonga.

In Tonga, a horse is one of the most valuable animals a family can own because of its use as a beast of burden. Therefore, the slaughter of one’s horse for consumption becomes a moment of immense homage to the person or event for which the horse was slain. Despite a diaspora into Western countries such as Australia, the USA, and New Zealand, where consumption of horsemeat is generally taboo, Tongans still practice the consumption of horse meat perhaps even more so because it is more readily available and more affordable.

In 2013, horse meat and traces of horse DNA were found in some food products where horse was not labelled as an ingredient, sparking the 2013 meat adulteration scandal across Europe.

Horse Leberkäse is available in special horse butcheries and occasionally at various stands, sold in a bread roll. Dumplings can also be prepared with horse meat, spinach, or Tyrolean Graukäse (a sour milk cheese). They are occasionally eaten on their own, in a soup, or as a side dish.

In Belgium, horse meat (paardenvlees in Dutch and viande chevaline in French) is popular in a number of preparations. Lean, smoked, and sliced horse meat fillet (paardenrookvlees or paardengerookt; filet chevalin in French) is served as a cold cut with sandwiches or as part of a cold salad. Horse steaks can be found in most butchers and are used in a variety of preparations. The city of Vilvoorde has a few restaurants specialising in dishes prepared with horse meat. Horse sausage is a well-known local specialty in Lokeren with European recognition. Smoked or dried horse/pork meat sausage, similar to salami, is sold in a square shape to be distinguished from pork and/or beef sausages.

Horse meat is served in some restaurants in Bulgaria, as the preferred way of consuming it is in the form of steaks and burgers. Still being far from a meat for mass consumption, horse beef is re-gaining its popularity, which it had in the 60s and 70s of the past century, when it was also consumed in in sausages and tartares.

In France, specialized butcher shops (boucheries chevalines) sell horse meat, as ordinary butcher shops were for a long time forbidden to deal in it. However, since the 1990s, it can be found in supermarket butcher shops and others.

Horse meat was famously eaten in large amounts during the 1870 Siege of Paris, when it was included in haute cuisine menus.

In Germany horse meat is sold by specialized butchers (Pferdemetzgereien) and by mail order. Many regions of Germany have traditional recipes that include horse meat. In the Rhineland around Cologne and Düsseldorf it is still common for restaurants to offer the traditional Sauerbraten in horse meat and beef variants. Other traditional horse meat dishes include the Swabian Pferderostbraten (a joint of roast meat prepared similarly to roast beef), Bavarian sausage varieties such as Rosswurst and Ross-Kochsalami as well as Ross-Leberkäse, a meatloaf dish.

The 2013 meat adulteration scandal started when German authorities detected horse meat in prepared food products including frozen lasagna, where it was declared fraudulently as beef. The mislabeling prompted EU authorities to speed up publication of European Commission recommendations for labeling the origin of all processed meat.

In Hungary, horse meat is primarily used in salami and sausages, usually mixed with pork, but also in goulashes and other stews. These products are sold in most supermarkets and many butcher shops.

In Iceland, it is both eaten minced and as steak, also used in stews and fondue, prized for its strong flavor. It has a particular role in the culture and history of the island. The people of Iceland supposedly were reluctant to embrace Christianity for some time largely over the issue of giving up horse meat after Pope Gregory III banned horse meat consumption in 732 AD, as it was a major part of many pagan rites and sacrifice in Northern Europe. Horse meat consumption was banned when the pagan Norse Icelanders eventually adopted Christianity in the year 1000. The ban became so ingrained that most people would not handle horse meat let alone consume it. Even during harsh famines in the 18th Century most people would not eat horse meat, and those who did were castigated. In 1757 the ban was decriminalised, but general distaste for horse meat lasted well into the 19th Century, possibly longer and its consumption often regarded as an indication of poverty. Even today horse meat is not popular (3.2% of Iceland’s meat production in 2015), although this has more to do with culinary tradition and the popularity of equestrianism than any religious vestiges.

Horse meat is especially popular in Lombardia, Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Parma, Apulia, and the islands of Sardinia and Sicily.

Horse meat is used in a variety of recipes: as a stew called pastissada (typical of Verona), served as steaks, as carpaccio, or made into bresaola. Thin strips of horse meat called sfilacci are popular . Horse fat is used in recipes such as pezzetti di cavallo. Horse meat sausages and salamis are traditional in various places . In Sardinia, sa petza ‚e cuaddu or sa petha (d)e caddu (campidanese and logudorese for horse meat) is one of the most renowned meats and sometimes is sold in typical kiosks with bread – also in the town of Sassari is a long tradition of eating horse steaks (carri di cabaddu in the local dialect). Chefs and consumers tend to prize its uniqueness by serving it as rare as possible. Donkey is also cooked, for example as a stew called stracotto d’asino and as meat for sausages e.g. mortadella d’asino . The cuisine of Parma features a horsemeat tartare called pesto di cavallo, as well as various cooked dishes.

In Veneto, the consumption of horse meat dates back to at least 1000 BC to the Adriatic Veneti, renowned for their horse-breeding skills. They were used to sacrifice horses to their goddess Reitia or to the mythical hero Diomedes. Throughout the classical period, Veneto established itself as a centre for horse breeding in Italy; Venetian horses were provided for the cavalry and carriage of the Roman legions, with the white Venetic horses becoming famous among Greeks and Romans as one of the best breeds for circus racing. As well as breeding horses for military and farming applications, the Venetics also used them for consumption throughout the Roman period, a practice that established the consumption of horse meat as a tradition in Venetian cuisine. In the modern age, horse meat is considered a luxury item and is widely available through supermarkets and butcheries, with some specialised butcheries offering only selected cuts of equine meat. Prices are usually higher than beef, pork, or any other kind of meat, except game.

In the Province of Padua, horse meat is a key element of the local cuisine, particularly in the area that extends southeast from the city, historically called Saccisica. Specialties based on horse meat constitute the main courses and best attractions of several typical restaurants in the zone. They are also served among other regional delicacies at the food stands of many local festivals, related to civil and religious anniversaries. Most notable is the Festa del Cavallo, held annually in the small town of Legnaro and totally dedicated to horses, included their consumption for food.

Some traditional dishes are:

In southern Italy, horse meat is commonly eaten everywhere – especially in the region of Apulia, where it is considered a delicacy. It is often a vital part of the ragù barese ([raˈɡu baˈreːze]) in Bari.

According to British food writer Matthew Fort, „The taste for donkey and horse goes back to the days when these animals were part of everyday agricultural life. In the frugal, unsentimental manner of agricultural communities, all the animals were looked on as a source of protein. Waste was not an option.“

In Malta, horse meat (Maltese: Laħam taż-żiemel) is seared and slowly cooked for hours in either tomato or red wine sauce. A few horse meat shops still exist and it is still served in some restaurants.

In the Netherlands, smoked horse meat (paardenrookvlees) is sold as sliced meat and eaten on bread. Zuurvlees, a southern Dutch stew, is made with horse meat as main ingredient. There are also beef-based variants. Horse meat is also used in sausages (paardenworst and frikandel), fried fast food snacks and ready-to-eat soups.

In Norway, horse meat is commonly used in cured meats, such as vossakorv and svartpølse, and less commonly as steak, hestebiff.

In pre-Christian Norway, horse was seen as an expensive animal. To eat a horse was to show one had great wealth, and to sacrifice a horse to the gods was seen as the greatest gift one could give. When Norwegians adopted Christianity, horse-eating became taboo as it was a religious act for pagans, thus it was considered a sign of heresy.

Live, old horses are often exported to Italy to be slaughtered. This practice also garners controversy. Horses in Poland are treated mostly as companions and the majority of society is against the live export to Italy. However, in Poland there exists a tradition of eating horse meat (sausage or tartare steaks). The consumption of horse meat was the biggest in the times when other meat was scarce (in the 20th century: WWII and the communist period).[citation needed]

Horse meat is generally available in Serbia, though mostly shunned in traditional cuisine. It is, however, often recommended by general practitioners to persons who suffer from anemia. It is available to buy at three green markets in Belgrade, a market in Niš, and in several cities in ethnically mixed Vojvodina, where Hungarian and previously German traditions brought the usage.

Horse meat is generally available in Slovenia, and is highly popular in the traditional cuisine, especially in the central region of Carniola and in the Karst region. Colt steak (žrebičkov zrezek) is also highly popular, especially in Slovenia’s capital Ljubljana, where it is part of the city’s traditional regional cuisine. In Ljubljana, many restaurants sell burgers and meat that contain large amounts of horse meat, including a fast-food chain called Hot Horse.

Cecina is cured meat made from beef or horse, and it is considered as a delicacy. Foal meat (carne de potro) is preferred rather than horse meat, and it is easy to find in supermarkets and usually prepared as stew or steak. It is a common practice to give it to children with anemia. Although no generalized taboo exists, its consumption is minor compared to pork, beef, and lamb.

Smoked/cured horse meat is widely available as a cold cut under the name hamburgerkött (hamburger meat). It tends to be very thinly sliced and fairly salty, slightly reminiscent of deli-style ham. Gustafskorv, a smoked sausage made from horse meat, is also quite popular, especially in the province of Dalarna, where it is made. It is similar to salami or metworst and is used as an alternative to them on sandwiches. It is also possible to order horse beef from some well-stocked grocery stores.

The ordinance on foodstuffs of animal origin in Switzerland explicitly lists equines as an animal species allowed for the production of food. Horse steak is modestly common. A speciality known as Mostbröckli is made with beef or horse meat. It is also used for a range of sausages in the German-speaking north of Switzerland. Like in northern Italy, in the Italian-speaking south, local salametti (sausages) are sometimes made with horse meat. It may also be used in fondue Bourguignonne.

In the United Kingdom, the slaughter, preparation, and consumption of horses for food is not against the law, although it has been rare since the 1930s and it is not generally available. There is a cultural taboo against consuming horse meat in the UK, although it was eaten when other meats were scarce, such as during times of war (as was whale meat, which was never popular in Britain). The sale of meat labelled as horse meat in supermarkets and butchers is minimal, and most of the properly described horse meat consumed in the UK is imported from Europe, predominantly the south of France, where it is more widely available.

Horse meat may be eaten without the knowledge of the consumer, due to accidental or fraudulent introduction of horse meat into human food. A 2003 Food Standards Agency (FSA) investigation revealed that salami and similar products such as chorizo and pastrami sometimes contain horse meat without it being listed, although listing is legally required.

Horse meat was featured in a segment in a 2007 episode of the Gordon Ramsay series The F Word. In the segment, Janet Street-Porter convinced locals to try horse meat, though not before facing controversy and being forced to move her stand to a privately-owned location. The meat was presented as having a similar taste to beef, but with less fat, a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acid and a safer alternative in times of worry regarding bird flu and mad cow disease. The segment was met with skepticism from many after broadcast for various reasons, either because some felt the practice was cruel and against social norms, or simply a belief that if the taste was really on par with other meats, then people would already be eating it.

In Ukraine, especially in Crimea and other southern steppe regions, horse meat is consumed in the form of sausages called mahan and sudzhuk. These particular sausages are traditional food of the Crimean Tatar population.

A thriving horse meat business exists in Quebec; the meat is available in most supermarket chains there. Horse meat is also for sale at the other end of the country, in Granville Island Market in downtown Vancouver, where according to a Time magazine reviewer who smuggled it into the United States, it turned out to be a „sweet, rich, superlean, oddly soft meat, closer to beef than venison“. Horse meat is also available in high-end Toronto butchers and supermarkets. Aside from the heritage of French cuisine at one end of the country, the majority of Canada shares the horse meat taboo with the rest of the Anglosphere. This mentality is especially evident in Alberta, where strong horse racing and breeding industries and cultures have existed since the province’s founding, although large numbers of horses are slaughtered for meat in Fort MacLeod, and certain butchers in Calgary do sell it.

The consumer protection show Kassensturz of Swiss television SRF together with Tier Schutz Bund, Zürich, reported on 19 February 2013 the bad treatment and brutal animal husbandry in Canadian horse meat farms in Fort MacLeod, Alberta, consequently the import from such farms has been boycotted.

CBC News reported on March 10, 2013, that horse meat was also popular among some segments of Toronto’s population.

Horse meat is generally not eaten in the United States and holds a taboo in American culture which is very similar to the one found in the United Kingdom. All horse meat produced in the United States (up until the last quarter of 2007) was intended solely for export abroad, primarily to the European Union. A thriving horse exportation business is going on in several states, including Texas, mainly exporting horses to slaughterhouses in either Canada or Mexico.

Restriction of human consumption of horse meat in the U.S. has generally involved legislation at local, state, and federal levels. Several states enacted legislation either prohibiting the sale of horse meat or banning altogether the slaughter of horses. California Proposition 6 (1998) was passed by state voters, outlawing the possession, transfer, reception, or holding any horse, pony, burro, or mule by a person who is aware that it will be used for human consumption, and making the slaughter of horses or the sale of horsemeat for human consumption a misdemeanor offense.

In 2007, the Illinois General Assembly enacted Public Act 95-02, ameding Chapter 225, Section 635 of the state’s compiled statutes to prohibit both the act of slaughtering equines for human consumption as well as the trade of any horse meat similarly to Texas Agriculture Code’s Chapter 149.

Other states banning horse slaughter or the sale of horse meat include New Jersey, Oklahoma, and Mississippi. In addition, several other states introduced legislation to outlaw the practice over the years, such as Florida, Massachusetts, New Mexico, and New York.

At federal level, since 2001 several bills have been regularly introduced in both the House and Senate to ban horse slaughter throughout the country without success. However, a budgetary provision banning the use of federal funds to carry out mandatory inspections at horse slaughter plants (necessary to allow interstate sale and exports of horse meat) has been also in place since 2007. Such restriction was temporarily removed in 2011 as part of the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2012 but was again included in the FY2014 Agriculture Appropriations Act and subsequent federal budgets, hence preventing the operation of any domestic horse slaughter operation.

Until 2007, only three horse meat slaughterhouses still existed in the United States for export to foreign markets, but they were closed by court orders resulting from the upholding of aforementioned Illinois and Texas statutes banning horse slaughter and the sale of horse meat.

As of 2005, Mexico was the second largest producer of horse meat in the world. By 2009, Mexico became the first largest producer of horse meat in the world. It is only exported as it is not used or consumed in Mexico.

In Chile, it is used in charqui. Also in Chile, horse meat became the main source of nutrition for the nomadic indigenous tribes, which promptly switched from a guanaco-based economy to a horse-based one after the horses brought by the Spaniards bred naturally and became feral. This applied specially to the Pampa and Mapuche nations, who became fierce horseman warriors. Similar to the Tatars, they ate raw horse meat and milked their animals.

In Colombia, eating horse meat is considered taboo.

Argentina is a producer and exporter of horse meat, but it is not used in local consumption and is considered taboo.

In Venezuela, eating horse meat is considered taboo.

Fra Mauro map

The Fra Mauro map, „considered the greatest memorial of medieval cartography“, is a map of the world made around 1450 by the italian cartographer Fra Mauro. It is a circular planisphere drawn on parchment and set in a wooden frame that measures over two by two meters. It includes Asia, the Indian Ocean, Africa, Europe and the Atlantic. It is oriented with south at the top.

The Fra Mauro world map is a major cartographical work. It took several years to complete and was very expensive to produce. The map contains hundreds of detailed illustrations and more than 3000 descriptive texts. It was the most detailed and accurate representation of the world that had been produced up until that time. As such, the Fra Mauro map is considered one of the most important works in the history of cartography. It marks the end of Bible-based geography in Europe and the beginning of embracing a more scientific way of making maps, placing accuracy ahead of religious or traditional beliefs.

The maker of the map, Fra Mauro, was a Camaldolese monk from the island of Murano near Venice. He was employed as an accountant and professional cartographer. The map was made for the kings and rulers of Venice and Portugal, two of the main seafaring nations of the time.

The map is usually on display in the museum Museo Correr in Venice in Italy.

The map is very large – the full frame measures 2.4 by 2.4 meters. This makes Fra Mauro’s mappa mundi the world’s largest extant map from early modern Europe. The map is drawn on high quality vellum and is set in a gilded wooden frame. The large drawings are highly detailed and uses a range of expensive colors: blue, red, turquoise, brown, green, and black are among the pigments used.

The main circular map of the world is surrounded by four smaller spheres:

About 3000 inscriptions and detailed texts describe the various geographical features on the map as well as related information about them. The depiction of inhabited places and mountains, the map’s chorography is also an important feature. Castles and cities are identified by pictorial glyphs representing turreted castles or walled towns, distinguished in order of their importance.

The making of the map was a major undertaking and the map took several years to complete. The map was not created by Fra Mauro alone, but by a team of cartographers, artists and copyists led by him and using some of the most expensive techniques available at the time. The price of the map would have been about an average copyist’s annual salary.

The studio of Fra Mauro produced two original editions of the map. In addition there is at least one high-quality physical reproduction on the same material.

In 1804 the British cartographer William Frazer made a full reproduction of the map on vellum. Although the reproduction is exact, there are minor differences between it and the Venetian original. The Frazer reproduction is currently on display in the British Library in London. In this article, some images are from the Venetian edition and some are from the Frazer reproduction.

A number of historians of cartography, starting with Giacinto Placido Zurla (1806) have studied Fra Mauro’s map. A critical edition of the map was edited by Piero Falchetta in 2006.

The Fra Mauro world map is unusual, but typical of Fra Mauro’s portolan charts, in that its orientation is with the south at the top. One explanation for why the map places south at the top is that 15th-century compasses were south-pointing. In addition, south at the top was used in Arab maps of the time. In contrast, most European mappa mundi from the era placed east at the top, since east was the direction of the biblical Garden of Eden. Other well-known world maps of the time such as the Ptolemy map places the north at the top. Fra Mauro was aware of the religious importance of the east, as well as of the Ptolemy map, and felt the need to defend why he changed the orientation in his new world map:

„I do not think it derogatory to Ptolemy if I do not follow his Cosmografia, because, to have observed his meridians or parallels or degrees, it would be necessary in respect to the setting out of the known parts of this circumference, to leave out many provinces not mentioned by Ptolemy. But principally in latitude, that is from south to north, he has much ‚terra incognita‘, because in his time it was unknown“. (Text from Fra Mauro map)

In another break from tradition, Jerusalem is not shown as the center of world. Fra Mauro justifies the change in this way:

„Jerusalem is indeed the center of the inhabited world latitudinally, though longitudinally it is somewhat to the west, but since the western portion is more thickly populated by reason of Europe, therefore Jerusalem is also the center longitudinally if we regard not empty space but the density of population“. (Text from Fra Mauro map)

The European part of the map, closest to Fra Mauro’s home in Venice, is the most accurate. The map depicts the Mediterranean, the Atlantic coast, the Black sea and the Baltic sea and extends as far as Iceland. The coasts of the Mediterranean are very accurate and every major island and land mass is depicted. Many cities and rivers, and mountain ranges of Europe are included.

Two legends on the map describe England and Scotland. They talk about giants, the Saxons and St George:

„Note that in ancient times Anglia [England] was inhabited by giants, but some Trojans who had survived the slaughter of Troy came to this island, fought its inhabitants and defeated them; after their prince, Brutus, it was named Britannia. But later the Saxons and the Germans conquered it, and after one of their queens, Angela, called it Anglia. And these peoples were converted to the Faith by means of St. Gregory the pope, who sent them a bishop called Augustine.“

„As it is shown, Scotia [Scotland] appears contiguous to Anglia, but in its southern part it is divided from it by water and mountains. The people are of easy morals and are fierce and cruel against their enemies; and they prefer death to servitude. The island is very fertile in pastures, rivers, springs and animals and all other things; and it is like Anglia.“

Scandinavia is the least accurate part of the European section. A legend describing Norway and Sweden describes tall, strong and fierce people, polar bears and St. Bridget of Sweden:

„Norvegia [Norway] is a very vast province surrounded by the sea and joined to Svetia [Sweden]. Here they produce no wine or oil, and the people are strong, robust and of great stature. Similarly, in Svetia the men are very fierce; and according to some, Julius Caesar was not eager to face them in battle. Similarly, these peoples were a great affliction to Europe; and at the time of Alexander, the Greeks did not have the courage to subjugate them. But now they are much diminished and do not have the reputation they formerly had. Here is said to be the body of St. Bridgit, who some say was from Svetia. And it is also said there are many new kinds of animals, especially huge white bears and other savage animals.“

The Asian part of the map shows the Arabian peninsula, Persia, the Indian subcontinent including the island of Sri Lanka, the islands of Java and Sumatra as well as Burma, China and the Korean peninsula. The Caspian sea, which is bordering Europe, has an accurate shape but the outline of Southern Asia is distorted. India has been split in two halves. Major rivers such as the Tigris, the Indus, The Ganges, The Yellow River and the Yangtse Kiang are depicted. Cities include Baghdad, Beijing, Bokhara and Ayutthaya in Thailand.

The Fra Mauro map is one of the first Western maps to represent the islands of Japan (possibly after the De Virga world map). A part of Japan, probably Kyūshū, appears below the island of Java, with the legend „Isola de Cimpagu“ (a misspelling of Cipangu).

The description of Africa is reasonably accurate.

Some of the islands named in the area of the southern tip of Africa bear Arabian and Indian names: Nebila („celebration“ or „beautiful“ in Arabic), and Mangla („fortunate“ in Sanskrit.) These are normally identified as aforementioned „Islands of Men and Women“. According to an old Arabian legend as retold by Marco Polo, one of these islands was populated exclusively by men and the other was populated exclusively by women, and the two would only meet for conjugal relations once a year. Their location was not certain and the location proposed by Fra Mauro is but one of multiple possibilities: Marco Polo himself located them in the neighborhood of Socotra, and other medieval cartographers offered locations in Southeast Asia, near Singapore or in the Philippines. It is generally thought that the islands are mythical.

The Indian Ocean is depicted as connected to the Atlantic. Several groups of smaller islands such as the Andamans and the Maldives are shown. Fra Mauro puts the following inscription by the southern tip of Africa, which he names the „Cape of Diab“, describing the exploration by a ship from the East around 1420:

„Around 1420 a ship, or junk, from India crossed the Sea of India towards the Island of Men and the Island of Women, off Cape Diab, between the Green Islands and the shadows. It sailed for 40 days in a south-westerly direction without ever finding anything other than wind and water. According to these people themselves, the ship went some 2,000 miles ahead until – once favourable conditions came to an end – it turned round and sailed back to Cape Diab in 70 days“.

„The ships called junks (lit. „Zonchi“) that navigate these seas carry four masts or more, some of which can be raised or lowered, and have 40 to 60 cabins for the merchants and only one tiller. They can navigate without a compass, because they have an astrologer, who stands on the side and, with an astrolabe in hand, gives orders to the navigator“. (Text from the Fra Mauro map, 09-P25.)

Fra Mauro explained that he obtained the information from „a trustworthy source“, who traveled with the expedition, possibly the Venetian explorer Niccolò da Conti who happened to be in Calicut, India at the time the expedition left:

„What is more, I have spoken with a person worthy of trust, who says that he sailed in an Indian ship caught in the fury of a tempest for 40 days out in the Sea of India, beyond the Cape of Soffala and the Green Islands towards west-southwest; and according to the astrologers who act as their guides, they had advanced almost 2,000 miles. Thus one can believe and confirm what is said by both these and those, and that they had therefore sailed 4,000 miles“.

Fra Mauro also comments that the account of the expedition, together with the relation by Strabo of the travels of Eudoxus of Cyzicus from Arabia to Gibraltar through the southern Ocean in Antiquity, led him to believe that the Indian Ocean was not a closed sea and that Africa could be circumnavigated by her southern end (Text from Fra Mauro map, 11,G2). This knowledge, together with the map depiction of the African continent, probably encouraged the Portuguese to intensify their effort to round the tip of Africa.

In 1450, the Americas had not yet been discovered by Europeans. The only part of the Americas that is included in the map is a reference to Greenland which is mentioned by the name of Grolanda.

As was generally the case among Medieval scholars, Fra Mauro regarded the world as a sphere. However, he used the convention of describing the continents surrounded by water within the shape of a disc. In one of the texts, the map includes an estimate of the circumference of the earth:

„Likewise I have found various opinions regarding this circumference, but it is not possible to verify them. It is said to be 22,500 or 24,000 miglia or more, or less according to various considerations and opinions, but they are not of much authenticity, since they have not been tested“.

Miglia is Italian for miles, a unit that was invented by the Romans but which had not yet been standardized in 1450. If miglia is taken as the Roman mile, this means the circumference would be about 34,468 km. If miglia is taken as the Italian mile, the stated circumference would be about 43,059 km. The actual meridional cirumference of the Earth is close to both these values at about 40,008 km or approximately 24,860 US miles. This means that the Fra Mauro map had an accuracy of about 86-92% of the real value when it comes to the circumference of the earth.

The sources for the map was existing maps, charts and manuscripts which were combined with written and oral accounts of travelers. The text on the map mentions many of these travel accounts.

One of the main sources were accounts of the journeys of italian merchant and traveller Nicolo de Conti. Setting out in 1419, De Conti traveled throughout Asia as far as China and present-day Indonesia during a period of 20 years. In the map many new location names, and several verbatim descriptions, were taken directly from de Conti’s account. The „trustworthy source“ whom Fra Mauro quotes is thought to have been de‘ Conti himself. The book of travels of Marco Polo is also believed to be one of the most important sources of information, in particular about East Asia. For Africa, Fra Mauro relied on recent accounts of Portuguese exploration along the west coast. The detailed information on the southeastern coast of Africa, was likely brought by an Ethiopian embassy to Rome in the 1430s. Fra Mauro also probably relied on Arab sources. Arab influence is suggested by the North-South inversion of the map, an Arab tradition exemplified by the 12th century maps of Muhammad al-Idrisi.

As Piero Falchetta notes, there are many geographical facts reflected in Fra Mauro map for which it is not clear what Fra Mauro’s source was, as no similar information is found in other preserved Western maps or manuscripts of the period. This situation can be at least partially explained by the fact that, besides the existing maps and manuscripts, an important source of information for his map were oral accounts from travelers – Venetians or foreigners – coming to Venice from all parts of the then-known world. The importance of such accounts is indicated by Fra Mauro himself in a number of inscriptions. An even earlier map, the De Virga world map (1411–1415) also depicts the old world in a way broadly similar to the Fra Mauro map, and may have contributed to it.

Fra Mauro’s Africa (south is at the top, with the „Cape of Diab“ marking the southern point)

Part of China

Spain, Portugal and Northern Africa

Europe

The Middle-East

The Middle-East

Southeast Asian mainland with the cities of „Scierno“, „Pochang“ and „Ava“ identified as Ayutthaya in Thailand, and Bagan and Inwa in Myanmar.

Depiction of a Chinese junk, an Atlantic ship and a Mediterranean ship in the Fra Mauro map.

Ships of the world in 1460, according to the Fra Mauro map. Chinese junks are described as very large, three or four-masted ships

The first mention of Java in a Western map

William Frazer’s 1804 copy. High Resolution Full View.

Accidents et incidents de Caravelle

En 45 ans d’exploitation commerciale, 67 Caravelle ont été retirées du service à la suite d’une destruction ou pour cause de dommages irréparables. Sur ces accidents et incidents, aucun n’est attribué à un défaut de conception, ce sont généralement des défaillances techniques ou des erreurs humaines qui sont responsables, et on recense un cas de sabotage. Une collision en vol a causé la mort d’un passager en 1960 sans causer la destruction de la Caravelle impliquée. Le total des pertes humaines dans des accidents de Caravelle s’élève à plus de 1 300. Le taux d’accidents par million de vol est estimé à plus de 5,5, contre moins de 1 pour les avions de ligne les plus récents.

La première cellule détruite l’a été dans un accident qui a causé la mort des 42 personnes à bord, le . Le , un appareil de Líneas Aéreas Suramericanas a été détruit par le feu après avoir réalisé un atterrissage forcé, ce qui a fait trois morts et deux blessés, ne laissant qu’un seul passager indemne. Cet accident, attribué à une erreur humaine, a entraîné le retrait des Caravelle chez l’opérateur, qui était le dernier à utiliser l’avion en Amérique du Sud. Un incident a eu lieu en août 2004, entraînant la destruction de la Caravelle, mais ne faisant pas de morts. L’appareil détruit dans l’incident a été, à l’origine, considéré comme la dernière Caravelle active dans le monde. Toutefois, deux Caravelle étaient encore à cette époque actives chez Waltair, et l’une d’entre elles n’a été retirée que près d’un an plus tard.

Le bilan en vies humaines est indiqué de la façon suivante : nombre total de tués / nombre total d’occupants + tués au sol.

19 janvier 1960 : Caravelle I (no 14) [OY-KRB], Scandinavian Airlines – 42/42

19 mai 1960 : Caravelle IA (no 28) [F-OBNI], Air Algérie – 1/39 et 1/1

6 septembre 1961 : Caravelle III (no 15) [PP-VJD], Varig – 0/71

12 septembre 1961 : Caravelle III (no 68) [F-BJTB], Air France – 77/77

3 juillet 1963 : Caravelle VI-N (no 127) [LV-HGY], Aerolineas Argentinas – 0/70

4 septembre 1963 : Caravelle III (no 147) [HB-ICV], Swissair – 80/80

6 septembre 1963 : Caravevlle VI-R (no 118) [PP-PDU], Panair do Brasil – 0

17 avril 1964 : Caravelle III (no 23) [OD-AEM], Middle East Airlines – 49/49

15 février 1966 : Caravelle VI-N (no 30) [VT-DPP], Indian Airlines – 2/80

4 septembre 1966 : Caravelle VI-N (no 134) [VT-DSB], Indian Airlines – 4/4

29 juin 1967 : Caravelle III (no 25) [HS-TGI], Thai Airways International – 24/80

4 novembre 1967 : Caravelle 10B1R (no 202) [EC-BDD], Iberia – 37/37

21 janvier 1968 : Caravelle III (no 30) [HS-TGL], Thai Airways International – 0 + 6/6

11 septembre 1968 : Caravelle III (no 244) [F-BOHB], Air France – 95/95

28 décembre 1968 :‘ Caravelle VI-N (no 157) [OD-AEF], Middle East Airlines – 0

9 juillet 1969 : Caravelle III (no 34) [HS-TGK], Thai Airways International – 0/75

26 juillet 1969 : Caravelle VI-N (no 73) [7T-VAK], Air Algérie – 33/37

2 août 1969 : Caravelle VI-N (no 179) [I-DABF], Alitalia – 0/44

9 septembre 1969 : Caravelle III (no 61) [F-BHRY], Air France – 0/93

1er avril 1970 : Caravelle III (no 32) [CN-CCV], Royal Air Maroc – 61/82

4 janvier 1971 : Caravelle III (no 214) [F-BNKI], Air Inter – 0/0

22 janvier 1971 : Caravelle III (no 145) [XU-JTA], Air Cambodge – 0/0

21 novembre 1971 : Caravelle III (no 122) [B-1852], China Airlines – 25/25

7 janvier 1972 : Caravelle VI-R (no 163) [EC-ATV], Iberia – 104/104

14 mars 1972 : Caravelle 10B3 (no 267) [OY-STL], Sterling Airways – 112/112

20 novembre 1972 : Caravelle III (no 191) [YU-AJG], JAT – 0Belgrade

5 mars 1973 : Caravelle 10B1R (no 228) [EC-BID], Aviaco – 3/3

1er juin 1973 : Caravelle VI-N (no 126) [PP-PDX], Cruzeiro – 23/23

3 juillet 1973 : Caravelle VI-N (no 128) [VT-DPO], Indian Airlines – 0/15

14 juillet 1973 : Caravelle VI-R (no 98) [OY-SAN], Sterling Airways – 0

13 août 1973 : Caravelle 10B1R (no 225) [EC-BIC], Aviaco – 85/85 + 1

21 août 1973 : Caravelle III (no 20) [YV-C-AVI], Avensa – 0

11 septembre 1973 : Caravelle VI-N (no 151) [YU-AHD], JAT – 41/41

23 septembre 1973 : Caravelle III (no 28) [7T-VAI], Air Algérie – 0

29 septembre 1973 : Caravelle VI-R (no 171) [EC-BBR], Iberia – 0

5 novembre 1973 : Caravelle VI-R (no 226) [EC-BIA], Iberia – 0

22 décembre 1973 : Caravelle VI-N (no 69) [OO-SRD], Sobelair – 106/106

23 décembre 1973 : Caravelle VI-R (no 120) [PP-PDV], Cruzeiro – 0/58

25 janvier 1974 : Caravelle III (no 6) [OY-KRA], Scandinavian Airlines System – 0

15 mars 1974 : Caravelle 10B3 (no 266) [OY-STK], Sterling Airways – 15/96

22 mars 1974 : Caravelle III (no 258) [F-BSRY], Air Inter – 0

22 juin 1974 : Caravelle VI-R (no 96) [PH-TRH], Transavia Holland – 0

17 juin 1975 : Caravelle VI-N (no 216) [VT-DVJ], Indian Airlines – 0/93

28 août 1976 : Caravelle III (no 83) [F-BSGZ], Air France – 1/20

12 octobre 1976 : Caravelle VI-N (no 213) [VT-DWN], Indian Airlines – 95/95

9 décembre 1977 : Caravelle VI-N (no 192) [F-BYAU], Aerotour – 0

18 décembre 1977 : Caravelle 10B1R (no 200) [HB-ICK], SATA – 36/57

2 mars 1978 : Caravelle 10B1R (no 201) [F-RAFH], GLAM – 0

12 mars 1979 : Caravelle III (no 31) [F-BHRL], Air France – 0/41

20 juillet 1979 : Caravelle VI-R (no 140) [HK-1778], Aerotal Colombia – 0/57

12 septembre 1979 : Caravelle VI-R (no 137) [HC-BFN], SAN Ecuador – 0

19 juin 1980 : Caravelle VI-R (no 95) [N905MW], Airborne Express – 0/4

21 décembre 1980 : Caravelle VI-R (no 165) [HK-1810], Taxi Aereo des Cesar – 70/70

29 avril 1983 : Caravelle VI-R (no 125) [HC-BAT], SAN Ecuador – 8/100

2 juillet 1983 : Caravelle III (no 54) [F-BHRS], Altair Linee Aeree – 0/89

8 octobre 1985 : Caravelle VI-N (no 74) [9Q-CMD], African Air Charter – 0

18 janvier 1986 : Caravelle III (no 40) [HC-BAE], Aerovias Guatemala – 87/87

6 août 1986 : Caravelle III (no 50) [5N-AWK], Kabo Air – 0

27 novembre 1986 : Caravelle 11R (no 261) [HK-2850X], Aerosucre Colombia – 0/5

6 janvier 1987 : Caravelle 10B1R (no 263) [SE-DEC], Transwede – 0/27

26 avril 1989 : Caravelle 11R (no 215) [HK-3325X], Aerosucre Colombia- 5/5 + 2

29 septembre 1991 : Caravelle 11R (no 219) [HK-3288X], Aerosucre Colombia – 0/3

6 mai 1993 : Caravelle 10B3 (no 182) [HK-3835X], SERCA Colombia – 0/4

15 mars 1994 : Caravelle 10B3 (no 265) [HK-3855], SEC Colombia – 0/6

4 novembre 1995 : Caravelle 10B3 (no 184) [HK-3962X], Aerogolfo – 0

14 avril 2000 : Caravelle III (no 105) [9Q-CZZ], Armée de l’Air Congolaise – 0

31 janvier 2001 : Caravelle 10B1R (no 201) [HK-3932X], Líneas Aéreas Suramericanas – 3/6

27 août 2004 : Caravelle 11R (no 251) [3D-KIK], Waltair/TAC Air Service – 0/8

Nuevo viaje a la luna

Nuevo viaje a la luna — o Excursion dans la lune, también titulada Voyage dans la lune y Nouveau voyage dans la lune— es una película muda del año 1909, con guion y dirección de Segundo de Chomón. Coloreada a mano, esta película es una adaptación de la exitosa Viaje a la luna (1902) de George Méliès, con algunas escenas adicionales.

Un grupo de astrónomos discute la posibilidad de realizar una expedición a la luna. Hacen construir un cohete-bala, que es disparado a la boca del satélite con un cañón. Cuando llegan ahí, los terrícolas, duermen una siesta, pero una nevada los despierta y entran en un cráter, y llegan así a una zona con setas gigantescas. Las habitantes de la luna los llevan ante su rey, quien, en un acto de bondad y bienvenida, hace que sus mujeres bailen para los terrícolas, pero uno de ellos escapa con una muchacha. El rey monta en cólera, pero los visitantes rápidamente se embarcan en el cohete y se arrojan desde un acantilado de regreso a la Tierra con la muchacha, y son recibidos por sus amigos astrónomos.

Este film corresponde al periodo de Chomón en la casa Pathé Frères, donde editaba películas de temática imaginativa al estilo de George Méliès. De hecho, Excursion dans la lune esta vista como una nueva versión de Viaje a la luna de 1902 de este pionero francés. Además, porque la copia es casi milimétrica.

Chomón hace uso de una serie de personajes extravagantes y, como en el corto de Méliès, se les construye una bala que es arrojada hacia la luna; sólo que, en esta ocasión, el proyectil no es arrojado a su ojo, sino que entra en su boca, tragándoselo. Los personajes viven unas pocas incidencias hasta ser atrapados por los selenitas. El regreso a la Tierra está efectuado de igual manera que en el corto referido.

en Internet Movie Database (en inglés)

Albert Leduc

Joseph Albert Florimond „Battleship“ Leduc (November 22, 1902 – July 31, 1990) was a professional Canadian ice hockey defenceman.

Albert played in the National Hockey League from 1925 to 1935. During this time, he played for the New York Rangers, Ottawa Senators, and Montreal Canadiens. While with the Habs, he won two Stanley Cups in 1930, and 1931.

Leduc played in the National Hockey League (NHL) from 1925 to 1935. During this period, he played for the New York Rangers, the Ottawa Senators and the Montreal Canadiens. He was part of the two Montreal Canadien teams to win the Stanley Cup in 1930 and 1931.

Leduc was already playing amateur hockey with the Collège de Valleyfield team which he was attending .

Leduc’s grand nephew, Philippe Hudon, is an ice hockey player who was drafted by the Detroit Red Wings in the 5th round of the 2011 NHL Entry Draft. Philippe is currently playing NCAA Division I college hockey at Cornell University.

Apple River (Illinois)

The Apple River is a tributary of the Mississippi River, about 55 miles (89 km) long, in southwestern Wisconsin and northwestern Illinois in the United States. It rises in Lafayette County, Wisconsin, and flows for most of its length in Illinois, through Jo Daviess and Carroll Counties. Along its course it passes through Apple River Canyon State Park and the town of Hanover. It flows into the Mississippi River about 7 mi (11 km) northwest of Savanna.

In Jo Daviess County, it collects two short tributaries known as the West Fork Apple River and South Fork Apple River.

The river is part of the Driftless Area of Illinois, a region that was bypassed by the last ice age; „the glacial sweep which ironed out hills and filled valleys in other parts of the state left this area unscratched. The Apple River had its original course reversed, it now flowing southwest to the Mississippi. The result is a deep canyon, part of which is preserved in Apple River Canyon State Park.

Fulgence le Mythographe

Fabius Planciades Fulgentius, dit « Fulgence le Mythographe », est un auteur latin dont on ne sait à peu près rien : ses dates aussi bien que sa biographie elle-même ont fait l’objet de nombreuses hypothèses et de débats dont certains ne sont pas encore tranchés. En effet, depuis le Moyen Âge, on s’est demandé s’il fallait voir en Fulgence le Mythographe la même personne que Fulgence de Ruspe, l’évêque bien connu pour son combat contre les Ariens, et qui vécut de 468 à 533.

Si l’on s’en tient aux éléments de l’œuvre de Fulgence qui permettent d’établir de façon certaine un terminus post quem et un terminus ante quo, l’intervalle obtenu ne permet guère de situer précisément l’époque de Fulgence : on sait en effet avec certitude qu’il écrivit entre 363 (date de l’accession au trône de l’empereur Valentinien Ier, à laquelle il fait allusion dans le De aetatibus, p. 179.10) et environ 800 (car on trouve des échos sans ambiguïté dans les Libri Carolini). Aucun détail vraiment assuré ne permet de préciser cet intervalle de plus de 400 ans. On peut toutefois insister sur le fait que Fulgence fait allusion à Martianus Capella, qu’il désigne sous le nom de Felix Capella dans l‘Expositio sermonum antiquiorum (1, 45, p. 123, l. 4 Helm, Leipzig, Teubner, 1898 : unde et Felix Capella in libro de nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiae ait…). Mais les dates de Martianus sont elles aussi incertaines : on le situe soit entre 410 et 439, soit dans les années 480. Par ailleurs, les quelques parallèles entre Fulgence et Dracontius (on peut notamment comparer Drac. Laud. 2, 391-4 et Fulg. Æt. p. 136.5) ne permettent pas d’établir avec certitude lequel des deux auteurs s’est inspiré de l’autre. En ce qui concerne l’origine géographique, l’adjectif Libycus, employé par Fulgence pour désigner sa langue natale (Aet. 131, 5-14), semble indiquer une origine africaine. Par ailleurs, la dédicace des Mitologiae à un certain Catus, prêtre de Carthage, semble confirmer cette localisation géographique.

Quoi qu’il en soit, ces rapprochements littéraires (en particulier avec Martianus et Dracontius), ainsi que le style et la langue de Fulgence (caractéristique des rhéteurs africains tardo-antiques, avec un goût pour les hapax, les hellénismes et l’attention au rythme de la prose) permettent de considérer Fulgence, avec une certaine probabilité, comme un auteur africain de la fin du Ve ou du début du VIe siècle, écrivant vraisemblablement dans le contexte de la « renaissance vandale » (c’est-à-dire de la renaissance culturelle, et en particulier littéraire, à partir des années 480).

Il convient toutefois de mentionner ici une hypothèse récente, de G. Hays (dans le Journal of Medieval Latin, 2003), qui rapproche un passage du prologue des Mitologiae de Fulgence d’un passage de la Johannide de Corippe (VIII, 278), et pense pouvoir prouver que Fulgence imite Corippe, ce qui donnerait pour notre auteur un terminus post quem dans les années 550 (donc après la libération de Carthage par la flotte byzantine).

Enfin, comme pour de nombreux auteurs de cette période, on peut poser la question du christianisme de Fulgence : on s’accorde généralement pour dire que Fulgence le Mythographe était chrétien, et on se fonde pour cela sur le vocabulaire (qui est typiquement celui des auteurs chrétiens africains) et sur le fait que son œuvre ait été utilisée au Moyen Âge pour accréditer l’hypothèse d’une interprétation allégorique chrétienne des poètes antiques. Certaines allusions permettent par ailleurs d’étayer cette hypothèse : on trouve ainsi des références à l’Antéchrist (Mitol. III, 1, 59), à Adam (ibid., III, 6, 69, 15–17) ainsi qu’au Christ (Expos. 87, 7–10).

Tous ces éléments — dates supposées, localisation et religion chrétienne — ont donc incité rapidement à une assimilation de Fulgence le Mythographe avec un autre Fulgence, beaucoup mieux connu, qui vécut de 468 à 533, et fut évêque de Ruspe (on connaît relativement bien sa vie, et l’on conserve beaucoup de ses écrits, en particulier les controverses contre les Ariens).

Dès le IXe siècle, et pendant tout le Moyen Âge, les auteurs pensaient qu’il n’y avait eu qu’un seul Fulgence, et cette identification n’a été remise en cause qu’avec l’édition des œuvres de Fulgence de Ruspe par A. Molanus, en 1573. Toutefois, la question a été à nouveau posée au XIXe siècle, lorsque R. Helm publia quatre études dans lesquelles il affirmait qu’il s’agissait bien d’une seule et même personne ; cette hypothèse fut reprise par O. Friebel, mais peu après M. Schanz et P. Hosius estimèrent que leurs arguments n’étaient guère probants.

Dans les recherches actuelles, cette question n’a pas été tranchée de manière définitive, même si dans l’ensemble on s’accorde aujourd’hui pour voir deux personnes différentes dans Fulgence le Mythographe et Fulgence de Ruspe (cependant, dans les années 1960, P. Langlois a affirmé de nouveau l’identité des deux auteurs). De fait, en l’absence d’éléments précis sur l’identité de Fulgence le Mythographe, il n’existe pas d’élément permettant de trancher nettement pour l’une ou l’autre thèse  : l’un des arguments souvent évoqués pour rejeter l’identification est que l’évêque Fulgence de Ruspe, connu pour le caractère sérieux et grave de ses écrits anti-ariens, n’aurait pas pu écrire les textes empreints de fantaisie qui constituent l’œuvre de Fulgence le Mythographe. Mais on peut également retourner l’argument en proposant de voir dans les textes du Mythographe des écrits de jeunesse de l’évêque.

La datation proposée par G. Hays à cause du rapprochement avec un passage de Corippe (voir plus haut, dans le paragraphe sur la datation), qui tendrait à situer Fulgence le Mythographe dans les années 550, permettrait de trancher en faveur d’une distinction des deux auteurs, puisque Fulgence de Ruspe est mort en 533.

On conserve quatre œuvres que l’on peut avec certitude attribuer à Fulgence le Mythographe : trois d’entre elles nous ont été transmises par les manuscrits sous le nom de Fulgentius Fabius Planciades, et une autre — le De ætatibus mundi et hominis — sous le nom de Fabius Claudius Gordianus Fulgentius, mais on admet généralement qu’il s’agit du même auteur ; enfin, le commentaire grammatical Super Thebaiden, attribué à « S. Fulgentius Episcopus », est généralement considéré dans les recherches actuelles comme un faux médiéval datant du XIIIe siècle.

Les Mitologiarum libri sont dédiés à un prêtre de Carthage, nommé Catus ; l’auteur s’y représente en train de discuter avec la muse Calliope ; après une préface en forme de prosimetrum, Fulgence évoque dans le livre I les mythes concernant les dieux olympiens, et présente d’autres mythes, sans ordre véritable, dans les livres II et III. Cette explication des mythes, teintée de stoïcisme et de néoplatonisme, est intéressante par son utilisation de l’étymologie au service de l’interprétation allégorique.

Bien que Fulgence soit un auteur chrétien (on peut voir dans plusieurs interprétations allégoriques un sens chrétien), on remarque qu’il fait un usage abondant de sources païennes, notamment par la compilation de l’explication stoïco-néoplatonicienne des mythes (les dieux considérés tantôt comme des symboles cosmiques, tantôt comme des allégories). Fulgence souligne toutefois que la vie contemplative est celle des prêtres et des moines, alors qu’autrefois elle était celle des philosophes. On insistera enfin sur la culture littéraire et philosophique dont témoignent les Mitologiæ : ce livre semble en effet être le dernier témoin d’une lecture approfondie du Songe de Scipion de Cicéron en Afrique, et Fulgence paraît connaître et adapter à son point de vue de chrétien certaines thèses du Commentaire au Songe de Scipion de Macrobe.

L’Expositio Virgilianæ continentiae secundum philosophos moralis (titre que les manuscrits donnent à l’œuvre, mais qui n’est certainement pas d’origine) : Virgile apparaît à l’auteur, et lui révèle le sens caché de l’Énéide. Après avoir insisté sur la profondeur symbolique du premier vers de l‘Énéide (arma, id est uirtus, correspond à la substantia corporis, uir, id est sapientia, à la substantia sensualis, et primus, id est princeps à la substantia censualis, autrement dit les trois premiers mots de l’Énéide correspondent aux trois degrés de la vie humaine: nature, science, bonheur), ce commentaire du poème virgilien présente les périples d’Énée comme une allégorie de la vie humaine — au périple géographique d’Énée, Fulgence fait correspondre un itinéraire existentiel : natiuitas, infantia, adulescentia, iuuentus et grauitas —, et il superpose à cette allégorie un schéma d’interprétation néoplatonicien, en voyant dans l’Énéide un passage ontologique du domaine physique (substantia corporalis, dans les livres I à IV) au domaine intelligible (substantia sensualis, dans les livres V et VI) puis éthique (substantia censualis, dans les livres VII à XII). Cette œuvre de Fulgence a eu une influence considérable sur le Moyen Âge : elle est à l’origine du commentaire allégorique à l’Énéide attribué à Bernard Silvestre, et on peut penser qu’elle a inspiré Dante directement ou indirectement.

L‘Expositio sermonum antiquorum est un opuscule où Fulgence explique le sens de 62 mots latins rares, en proposant des citations d’auteurs de Démosthène à Martianus Capella (citations qui paraissent inventées pour une partie d’entre elles).

Le De ætatibus mundi et hominis (qui n’est pas conservé dans les mêmes manuscrits que les trois premières œuvres) comporte 14 sections qui retracent l’histoire des hommes des origines à 363 ap. J.-C. : les sections I à IX couvrent l’histoire biblique, la section X présente la carrière d’Alexandre le Grand, la section XI l’histoire de la Rome républicaine, les sections XII et XIII la vie du Christ et des apôtres, et la section XIV l’histoire de la Rome impériale, jusqu’à la mort de Julien et l’accession au trône de Valentinien Ier.

On remarque que les passages sur l’histoire romaine sont violemment hostiles aux Romains, ce qui indique que l’auteur, romain lui-même, adopte à l’égard de l’expansion de la puissance romaine le point de vue critique qui fut celui des chrétiens. Mais l’intérêt de cette œuvre vient avant tout du jeu stylistique « lipogrammatique », digne de la Disparition de Perec, qui y est employé : dans chacune des sections, l’auteur a fait disparaître la lettre de l’alphabet correspondante (ainsi le récit de la chute, dans la première section, est réalisé entièrement sans A, le récit du déluge, sans B, et ainsi de suite, jusqu’à l’histoire de la Rome impériale, présentée sans O).

Il s’agit d’un commentaire à la Thébaïde de Stace. On y trouve un rapprochement entre l’Énéide et la Thébaïde, ainsi que des interprétations assez proches de ce que l’on a dans l‘Expositio Vergilianæ continentiæ, et le même goût pour les étymologies fantaisistes. On admet généralement que cette œuvre est un faux du XIIe siècle, mais là encore, aucun argument véritablement déterminant ne permet de trancher.

On doit peut-être ajouter à ces œuvres des poésies de jeunesse (comme l’indique la préface des Mitologiae), ainsi qu’un commentaire sur les deux premiers livres de Martianus Capella.

Damenskijacken | BOGNER Skijacken Damen

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